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Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatitis B (Child Pugh A)|Laparoscopic Ablation|50|Female
Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hepatitis B (Child Pugh A)|Laparoscopic Ablation|50|Female
2016ablateablationablationscentimeterlaparoscopiclesionmultidisciplinarypercutaneousproberesectsegmentSIRtumor
Surgical Results Of Treating Hepatic Hemangioma And Literature Review
Surgical Results Of Treating Hepatic Hemangioma And Literature Review
adenomaasymptomaticbenignbleedbleedingbloodcapillarycavernouscenterdiagnosisdiagnosticdifferentialexperiencehemangiomahermannlivermalignantmortalityMRIperformsurgeonsurgerysymptomaticsymptomsTherapeutic / Diagnostictransplantationtumorsvessels
Improper And Suboptimal Antiplatelet Treatment Casts Doubt On All CAS Trials: What Are The Implications
Improper And Suboptimal Antiplatelet Treatment Casts Doubt On All CAS Trials: What Are The Implications
accessactiveangioplastyantiplateletaspirincarotidCASconvertcrestdatadecreaseembolicendarterectomyenzymeeventsgroininsertintermediatelivermetabolitenormalpackagepatientspeopleplavixpoorrandomizedrapidriskshiftsitestentstentingstentstechnicaltrialsultra
Lymphatic Intervention: Thoracic Duct Embolization, Pulmonary Lymphatic Perfusion Syndrome, And Hepatic Lymphatic Disorders
Lymphatic Intervention: Thoracic Duct Embolization, Pulmonary Lymphatic Perfusion Syndrome, And Hepatic Lymphatic Disorders
accesscontrastductembolizationembolizingglueinduceinterventionalInterventionsleakagelipiodolliverlymphlymphangiographylymphaticlymphaticsneedlenodepercutaneousperfusionperiportalrefluxTherapeutic / Diagnosticthoracicultrasoundvariationvenousvesselsvisualize
New Devices For False Lumen Obliteration With TBADs: Indications And Results
New Devices For False Lumen Obliteration With TBADs: Indications And Results
aneurysmangiographyaortaballooningCcentimeterdilatorendograftendovascularEndovascular DevicefenestratedgraftiliacimplantedlumenoccludeoccluderoccludersoccludesremodelingstentStent graftstentstechniqueTEVARtherapeuticthoracicthoracoabdominalVeithy-plugyplug
How To Obtain Percutaneous Axillary Access For F/B/EVAR: It Is Not Simple But It Can Be Safe: How To Prevent Bleeding And Nerve Injury
How To Obtain Percutaneous Axillary Access For F/B/EVAR: It Is Not Simple But It Can Be Safe: How To Prevent Bleeding And Nerve Injury
accessapproacharterialarteryaxillaryaxillary arteryAxillary Ecoguided punctureB-FEVARballooncollateralsdeploydiameterDouble proglide techniqueenhancefemoralfrenchpercutaneousproglidepuncturepuncturedrenalsegmentsheathstentvesselswire
Continued Tobacco Use Is Bad For PAD Patients But Does Not Negatively Affect Outcomes Of Endo Treatments For Intermittent Claudication
Continued Tobacco Use Is Bad For PAD Patients But Does Not Negatively Affect Outcomes Of Endo Treatments For Intermittent Claudication
activeadversebypasscessationclaudicationdemonstratedendovascularextremityfollowupinterventionlifelifestylelimblimitingmarkovmedicalmultidisciplinaryoutcomespatencypatientpatientsqualityrevascularizationsmokerssmokingsurgicaltobaccoversus
Summary Of Thermal Ablation RCTs
Summary Of Thermal Ablation RCTs
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Update On The Value Of Tack Assisted Balloon Angioplasty (TOBA) : Results Of The TOBA II Study
Update On The Value Of Tack Assisted Balloon Angioplasty (TOBA) : Results Of The TOBA II Study
adjudicatedanchoringbailoutclinicaldissecteddissectionDissection repair devicedissectionsefficacyendovascularenrollenrolledfreedomimplantimprovementIntact MedicallengthlesionlesionsnitinolpatencypatientsPOBAprimaryradiopaqueregardrestenoticstenosisstentTack endovascular systemtargettherapeuticvessel
Cloud Based System For Image Fusion Techniques With Mobile C-Arms (The Cydar System): How Does It Work And Advantages For All Vascular Interventions
Cloud Based System For Image Fusion Techniques With Mobile C-Arms (The Cydar System): How Does It Work And Advantages For All Vascular Interventions
anatomyaorticaortoiliacAortoiliac occlusive diseasebasedBilateral Kissing StentsbodiesclinicalcontrastCydar EV (Cydar Medical) - Cloud SoftwaredecreasesderivedendovascularevarFEVARfluorofluoroscopyfusionhardwarehybridiliacimageimagesimagingmechanicaloverlaypatientpostureprocedureproximalqualityradiationreductionscanstandardstatisticallytechnologyTEVARTherapeutic / DiagnostictrackingvertebralZiehm ImagingZiehm RFD C-arm
Are Mesh Covered Stents Living Up To Their Potential For Improving CAS Outcomes: Results Of A RCT
Are Mesh Covered Stents Living Up To Their Potential For Improving CAS Outcomes: Results Of A RCT
assessmentbilateralbiomarkersCASCGuardcomparingcontracontralateraldetectabledetecteddifferenceemboliembolicEmbolic Prevention StentembolismenrolledhoursInspireMD)ipsilateralischemiclesionmaximalmicroneuroneurologicaloperativelypatientpatientsperformedperioperativeplaquepostpostoperativepredilationpreoperativeproteinrandomizedratescoresilentstenosisstentstentssubclinicaltesttherapeuticwallstentWALLSTENT (Boston Scientific) - Endoprosthesis / FilterWire (Boston Scientific) - Embolic Protection System
Endoscopic vs. Open Vein Harvest For Bypasses: What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each
Endoscopic vs. Open Vein Harvest For Bypasses: What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Each
advantagesautologousbypasscardiaccomorbidcomplicationsdecreasedecreaseddisadvantagesendoscopicendovascularextremityharvestincisionincreasedinexperiencedlaborligatedlowerpatencypatientspercutaneousperformedprimaryrisksaphenoussurgicalsuturevascularveinVeithwoundwounds
DEBATE: Endo-First Is Best For All CLTI Patients: Rarely Are Open Bypasses Helpful: How Often
DEBATE: Endo-First Is Best For All CLTI Patients: Rarely Are Open Bypasses Helpful: How Often
amputationbasilcriticaldistalendovascularevarextensivefemoralinfectionInfrapoplitealinterventionlimboutcomespatencypatientspoorrationalesalvagesegmentsurgerysurgicaltherapytibial
The Vanguard IEP Balloon PTA System With An Integrated Embolic Protection Filter: How It Works And When It Should Be Used
The Vanguard IEP Balloon PTA System With An Integrated Embolic Protection Filter: How It Works And When It Should Be Used
acuteangioplastyanteriorballoonBalloon angioplasty systembifurcationcapturecapturedchronicContego MedicaldebrisdevicedistalembolicembolizationlesionlesionslimboccludedocclusionplanarpoplitealreocclusionriskrotationalrunoffstentstentstherapeutictibialtotalulcerationVanguard IEPvessel
Longer-Term Results Of The IMPROVE RCT (EVAR vs. Open Repair [OR]) Finally Shows EVAR Is Better Than OR For Ruptured RAAAs: In Terms Of Late Survival, Cost And Fewer Amputations
Longer-Term Results Of The IMPROVE RCT (EVAR vs. Open Repair [OR]) Finally Shows EVAR Is Better Than OR For Ruptured RAAAs: In Terms Of Late Survival, Cost And Fewer Amputations
amputationaneurysmcrossoversendovascularevarmidtermpatientspercentrandomizedrepairrupturedstrategysurvivaltrialunselectedVeithversus
The Biolux Paseo-18 Lux DCB: Advantages And Good Patency Results In Difficult Fempop Lesions
The Biolux Paseo-18 Lux DCB: Advantages And Good Patency Results In Difficult Fempop Lesions
adverseBailoux Passeo18Bailoux Passeo18 ProcedureballoonBiotronikcalcifiedcentimeterclinicalcohortdrivenfreedomglobalhydrophobiclesionlesionspaclitaxelpatencypatientspercentagephaseprimaryrandomizedregardregistriesstentstentedstentingstudysubgroupstasctherapeuticversus
Yakes Type IV Infiltrative AVMs Curative Treatment Strategies: A New Entity
Yakes Type IV Infiltrative AVMs Curative Treatment Strategies: A New Entity
arterialarteriolesarteriovenousavmscapillariescapillarycontrastdirectethanolfistulasflowhemodynamicsinfiltratinglesionlowermixturemultiplenormaloccludeoutflowPathophysiologyphysiologicpuncturerefluxtissuetransarterialtreattypeveinveinsvesselsyakes
How To Treat By EVAR Complex Aorto-Iliac AAAs In Patients With Renal Transplants, Horseshoe Or Pelvic Kidneys: Technical Tips
How To Treat By EVAR Complex Aorto-Iliac AAAs In Patients With Renal Transplants, Horseshoe Or Pelvic Kidneys: Technical Tips
accessoryaneurysmalaneurysmsantegradeaorticapproacharteriesarteryatypicalbifurcationbypasscontralateraldistalembolizationendoendograftingendovascularevarfairlyfemoralfenestratedflowfollowuphybridhypogastriciliacincisionmaintainmaneuversmultipleocclusiveOpen Hybridoptionspatientspelvicreconstructionreconstructionsreinterventionsrenalrenal arteryrenalsrepairsurvival
Can You Predict Venous Severity Based On Reflux Time
Can You Predict Venous Severity Based On Reflux Time
ablatedablationceapclinicalcorrelationdiameterEndovenous Saphenous AblationfillingMixed Venous Disease CEAP Class 5patientsplethysmographypoplitealrefluxsaphenousseverityTherapeutic / Diagnosticveinvelocityvenous
Advantages Of The Gore VBX Balloon Expandable Stent-Graft For F/EVAR, Ch/EVAR And Aorto-Iliac Occlusive Disease
Advantages Of The Gore VBX Balloon Expandable Stent-Graft For F/EVAR, Ch/EVAR And Aorto-Iliac Occlusive Disease
anatomiesaneurysmaneurysmsaortobifemoralaortoiliacarterybrachialbranchcatheterizedCHcustomizablecustomizedistallyendovascularevarexcellentFfenestratedFenestrated GraftfenestrationflarefollowupGORE MedicalGore Viabahn VBXgraftgraftshypogastriciliaciliacsmodelingoccludedocclusiveparallelpatencyperfusionproximalpseudoaneurysmPseudoaneurysm of the proximal juxtarenal graft anastomosisptferenalsSelective Catheterization of the Right CIA to Hypogastric Arterystenosisstentstent graft systemstentstherapeuticVBX Stent Graftvesselvesselsvisceral
Technical Tips For The Management Of Cervical And Mediastinal Iatrogenic Artery Injuries: How To Avoid Disasters
Technical Tips For The Management Of Cervical And Mediastinal Iatrogenic Artery Injuries: How To Avoid Disasters
9F Sheath in Lt SCAAbbottaccessarterybrachialcarotidcatheterCordisDual Access (Rt Femora + SC sheath) ttt with suture mediated proglid over 0.035 inch wireendovascularfemoralfrenchgraftiatrogenicimaginginjuriesleftPer-Close suture mediated ProgliderangingsheathstentsubclaviantreatedvarietyvascularvenousvertebralVessel Closure Devicewire
Progress In Developing A Site Specific Self-Expanding DES For Use In The Crural Arteries: The SAVAL Trial
Progress In Developing A Site Specific Self-Expanding DES For Use In The Crural Arteries: The SAVAL Trial
amputationanatomyangioangioplastyballoonbiologicalBoston ScientificcentersclinicaldrugDrug eluting vascular stentelutingendovascularenrollmentevarexpandableexpandingglobalhemodynamicischemiakneelesionlesionsmetanakamuranitinolocclusionpatencypercutaneousperspectivepivotalprimaryproximalrandomizerecoilreinterventionrestenosisscaffoldstentstentingstudyThe Savaltherapeutictibial
CMS Policy Update On Nonthermal Ablation
CMS Policy Update On Nonthermal Ablation
ablationanteriorClariVeincompressivecontractorcovercoveragedeterminationsfoamincisionincisionsmedicarementionmicrofoamNonthermal ablationOcclusion catheter systemphlebectomyrefluxsaphenoussclerotherapysystematictherapeutictreatmentsVascular Insights IncvcssVenaSeal (Medtronic - closure system) / Varithena (BTG Interventional Medicine - polidocanol injectable foam) / PhotoDerm VascuLight (ESC - laser device) / Veinlase (Fisma - laser device)venous
Value And Limitations Of Cryopreserved Allografts For The Treatment Of Arterial Prosthetic Graft Infections
Value And Limitations Of Cryopreserved Allografts For The Treatment Of Arterial Prosthetic Graft Infections
adjunctiveaneurysmaorticarterialautologousbleedingcellulitisclosurecomplicationcomplicationsCryopreserved Allograftdeviceetiologyextremityfemoralgraftinfectedinfectioninfectionsinfectiousintraoperativelateligationlimbmycoticpatientspercutaneousperipheralprimaryprofundaprostheticpseudoaneurysmpseudoaneurysmsresectionscanseedingstenttherapeutictreatedulceratedvisceral
Thermal Ablation In Anticoagulated Patients: Is It Safe And Effective
Thermal Ablation In Anticoagulated Patients: Is It Safe And Effective
ablationanticoagulatedanticoagulationantiplateletatrialClosureFastcontralateralcontrolCovidein Cf 7-7-60 2nd generationdatademonstratedduplexdurabilitydurableDVTdvtseffectivenessendothermalendovenousevlafiberlargestlaserMedtronicmodalitiesocclusionpatientspersistentpoplitealproceduresRadiofrequency deviceRe-canalizationrecanalizationrefluxstatisticallystudysystemictherapythermaltreatedtreatmenttumescentundergoingveinvenousvesselswarfarin
Fully Percutaneous EVAR For RAAAs: Advantages, Contraindications And Technical Tips
Fully Percutaneous EVAR For RAAAs: Advantages, Contraindications And Technical Tips
abdominalaccessanesthesiaaneurysmaneurysmsaorticarterybaselinecolorconventionalcREVARcutdowndecreasedendovascularevarexposurefemoralimagingincreasedlengthMicropuncture TechniqueneedleoperativeoutcomespatientspercutaneousPEVARplacingregardrepairrepairsREVARRumel mediated Techniquerupturedsheathstatisticallysurgicalsuturestargettechniqueunderwentutilizing
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Sandwich Graft Technique For Treating TAAAs: How To Make It Work Even In Urgent Or Ruptured Cases
a large juxtarenal aneurysmabdominalacuteaneurysmaneurysmsangiogramangioplastyaorticarteryaxillarycarotidcatheterizecatheterizedceliaccentimetercongestivedissectionembolizedendografterectilegraftgraftsiliacsivusleft carotid subclavian bypassleft subclavian artery embolizationlumenluminaloccludedparallelperformedperfusionreasonablerenalrenalssscansegmentstenosisstentssubclavianTEVARtherapeuticthoracicthoracoabdominalType B thoracic dissectionvesselsvisceralwich graft technique
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Update On Experience With The Valiant MONA LSA Single Branched TEVAR Device (From Medtronic) To Treat Lesions Involving The Aortic Arch
12mm BSG34 & 26 mm Distal Extentions to Celiac Artery34mm MSGaccessaneurysmangiogramaorticarteryballoonceliaccenterscomorbiditiesDescending Thoracic Aneurysm 55mmdevicedevicesdiametersendovascularenrollenrollmentfeasibilitygrafthelicalinvestigationalischemialeftmainMedtronicnitinolpatientpatientspivotalproximalrevascularizationstentstent graft systemsubclavianTEVARtherapeuticthoracicthrombusValiant Mona LSAwire
Surveillance Protocol And Reinterventions After F/B/EVAR
Surveillance Protocol And Reinterventions After F/B/EVAR
aneurysmangiographicaorticarteryBbranchbranchedcatheterizationcatheterizedceliaccommoncommon iliacembolizationembolizedendoleakendoleaksevarFfenestratedfenestrationFEVARgastricgrafthepatichypogastriciiiciliacimplantleftleft renalmayomicrocatheternidusOnyx EmbolizationparaplegiapreoperativeproximalreinterventionreinterventionsrenalrepairreperfusionscanstentStent graftsuperselectivesurgicalTEVARtherapeuticthoracicthoracoabdominaltreatedtypeType II Endoleak with aneurysm growth of 1.5 cmVeithvisceral
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New Developments In The Treatment Of Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndromes
New Developments In The Treatment Of Venous Thoracic Outlet Syndromes
angioplastyanterioranticoagulationantiplateletapproacharteryaxillaryBalloon angioplastycameracontraindicateddegreedischargeddrainduplexhematologyhypercoagulabilityincisionintraoperativelaparoscopicOcclusion of left subclavian axillary veinoperativePatentpatientspercutaneousPercutaneous mechanical thrombectomyperformingpleurapneumothoraxposteriorpostoppreoperativepulsatilereconstructionresectionsubclaviansurgicalthoracicthrombectomyTransaxillary First Rib ResectionTransaxillary First Rib Resection (One day later)uclavalsalvaveinvenogramvenographyvenousvisualization
Transcript

a 50 year old female, Hepatitis B, CP A patient, a 3.2 centimeter lesion in segment five. So again we have multidisciplinary rounds, we discussed these patients, should we resect this patient,

should we list them for transplant. So the decision was, and we again, we're comfortable treating up to four centimeters to with ablation alone and we have a very good MDT team, we discuss all these cases

and the surgeons trust us, if we say we can treat a tumor and we're confident that we're gonna get it all, they let us go ahead with it, if we're not we'll be upfront with them say look, the chance of us getting a good burn here is low and they'll operate on the

patient. So I haven't got any laparoscopic cases or MIS cases. I think to remember with sort of a laparoscopic ablations is that they're not as easy as you think they're gonna be, often your lines into the tumor are difficult,

you're far away from the lesion obviously cuz you've inflated the abdomen with gas and so laparoscopic ablations are fun but technically much more difficult than percutaneous ablations. So if I can get away with doing a percutaneous ablation rather than having to do a laparoscopic ablation that's what I'd do, I

find often laparoscopic ablations very very challenging for a multitude of reasons but the main one is actually getting your probe into the right position from the angle that you want is sometimes very very difficult. So 3.2 centimeter lesion, segment five, pretty much away from everything.

So you're not near any vital structures again options for treatment here you could use ready frequency ablation you can use microwave but again the whole point is whatever you are using be comfortable with your technology and make sure that you can ablate that entire lesion. Cuz again this is a young healthy patient with a single lesion who is basically curable and to go in there and do a sub

optimal ablation where you leave tumor behind is not in anyone's best interests so whatever you do just make sure that the technology that you use is appropriate. And so here we go, big tumor, you can see the probe in the center of the lesion and again,

PR 65Watts 13 minutes, and that's the ablation at the end. [BLANK_AUDIO] There it is nice, big ablation, she had to do those in for a previous HCC but basically good ablation and she's still disease free one year down.

- (speaks French) liver surgeon I perform hepatobiliary surgery and liver transplantation. Maybe I don't belong here, I so probably more rested than anybody in the room here. But today I will present about liver surgery and hepatectomy. I work at The Royal Free where I have the honor and pleasure to have seen Krassi. We are in the

little island in the North Sea. There is many things going wrong there including Brexit but, the guys uh, we have a major advantage. The NHS favors centralization. Centralization look there: London is bigger than New York Uh, eight million, 50 million greater London

and we drain about six millions of people with our HPB center. In the center we perform about 2,000 operations, of major surgery. In five years, half of them are liver surgery. And most of them have uh, benign, malignant tumor. A very small percentage have benign tumor.

I count here for complications uh, and mortality look there, 3.1% of only the malignant because the benign are young people and we perform a different strategy, they have no mortality. Today Hepatic Hemangioma, look there it is uh, 1898 is a key year. Not only the first description

of the lady that died after bleeding out in an autopsy but also, Hermann Pfannenstiel uh, Professor Pfannenstiel. I will introduce you to him. He described the first operation. Now, we're talking of congenital malformations, they uh, lesions occur in the liver and they may grow,

but only 20% they grow. They have a chaotic network of vessels and they have fibrotic, fibrotic development within it. I introduce you Hermann Pfannenstiel, he was a gynecologist, famous, famous, important incision that we still use today.

Remember him, we'll talk to him later. Microscopically, the microscopic is our well-circumscribed lesion, they're compressible. Important you see down there that they compress the liver that is normal close to it. This has an implication because if you operate,

you fill find a blood duct or a vessel and it will bleed or leak by. Microscopically, they are ectatic blood vessels and they are fed by arteries. This is also an important point, for therapy. Separated by fibrous septa, this is also important

because they become harder and they become bigger. And they have distorted blood vessels. They're more frequent uh, benign tumor. Prevalence up to 7%, they have non-neoplastic this must be clear, they are non-cancer. The proliferation of endothelial cells, women

have more and particularly pregnant women, more pregnancy or contraceptive. We divide them in cavernous and capillary and we'll have a word on that. Symptomatic being half of the cases, multiple in 10%, they rarely bleed and they rarely rupture.

Capillary Hemangiomas cells small, I show you an MRI here. The differential with HCC liver cancer is most important. They both are theorized but they continue to appear on late face. They are asymptomatic please, do not touch them, they do no harm.

And so we will not speak of them. We speak only of the cavernous hemangioma. And here, the cavernous hemangioma bleeds Oh my God, no, it's not true. There are 83 reports of bleeding since the report of Hermann Pfannenstiel. Uh, 97 cases, adenomas bleed more frequently.

Frequently, in the past they were confused. Hemangioma and adenoma, adenoma does bleed. There are only true cases, 46 in the literature. Size is not important and they are very rare in elderly people.

This is what we see when they are giant cavernous hemangiomas, they're serious, they are rather easy to diagnose. Diagnostic criteria, uh, look up typical for uh, cavernous hemangioma. How do you point here? Yep, you stop. If you then see that you have

an atypical hemangioma, you jump over to an MRI. MRI is too nowadays, diagnostic and uh, the important thing is you stop. Once you have the diagnosis with MRI, you stop, do nothing yet, do not follow, bye-bye. Treatment modalities surgery: Selective TAE, Radiotherapy, Medication: two classes,

Propranolol, to decrease the hyper circulation. Bevacizumab as a class of drugs of inhibitors of inferior growths and endories, eventually are cold. This is seminal paper, about 35 years ago "Do not treat asymptomatic patients." This is a key: do not bother with hemangioma.

If you do have the algorithm, you look at complaints that can present incidentally when they have complained, not complained, no treatment of abdominal pain. Unrelated to no treatment, we have to eventually make sure that the pain is not related to the cavernous hemangioma. If there is other futures

like compression giant, you can do surgery. If you have a doubt in diagnosis, today rare with MRI, then you can perform a biopsy. The surgical indication then remain progress, severe, disabling symptoms. Diagnostic uncertainty nowadays not the case, with MRI.

Consumptive coagulopathy or Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is a serious, we will see when you perform human transplants. Spontaneous rupture with bleeding as an emergency. Rapid growth in 25%. This is a paper that shows that the size of the cavernous hemangioma is here,

and you can see that operation has been performed for larger size, however, look that even in non-symptomatic or partially asymptomatic patients, you can reach sizes up to 15 centimeters. And this a review of the literature from a Chinese group where they revised a thousand to a hundred cases,

no mortality in the series and enucleation versus the anatomic resection is better. Less complications, less blood less, less time of surgery, and less hospital stay. So please, in this case of surgery, we do enucleation. I was asked by my society the HPBA to speak

about transplantation for liver tumor. You can that an indication is unresectable disease, severe symptoms and mass occupying effects. Pre-cancerous behavior is not for hemangioma only for adenoma differential diagnosis with HCC. And you have to be attentive that you avoid

liver insufficiency during your resection. So, in conclusion, for benign lesions, hemangioma technically is the only indication. And now the systematic review that shows around several emothing United States UNOS and the ELTR Several, several benign tumors but if you break down

for type of tumors you see that most of them are Polycystic disease or partly cavernous hemangioma are very low. 77 in Europe, out of 97,000 operation of transplantation. So, let's get an old paper. The pioneer of transplantation again, extremely low,

one out of 3,200. An extremely low percentage. It's my personal experience I was working at Essen, Germany. Almost a thousand transplants we performed. Unfortunately most of them I did and we never transplanted one hemangioma, my experience for transplantation is zero because it should not be done.

So, my advice for hemangioma. Biopsy not advised, see a liver surgeon in a serious center, diagnosis is done my MRI, observe doubt symptoms and observe. Let the patient beg you for surgery, if significant increase in size and symptoms, we can do surgery. Embolization is possible.

Sometimes it's harmful. The role of the surgeon is to confirm the diagnosis, differentiate it from cancer, exclude causes of other symptoms and avoid unnecessary surgery that's the main thing. Surgery for severe symptoms of Kasabach-Merritt. Only for complicated symptomatic lesions, or where the

diagnosis is uncertain. Ladies and gentleman, I will conclude with a couple of questions. If you have a daughter or son with a liver tumor, would you go to a center or a competent surgeon or to a gynecologist. Professor Pfannenstiel for instance or another doctor. If your car has a problem,

would you go to a good mechanic once for all, or to a small shop for 20-40 times. It is a matter of experience and a matter of costs. And with this, I am ready for your questions. - [Audience Member #1] When have you personally operated on these lesions?

- [Speaker] I am. And the experience that I have in the past I seemed young but I practiced for many years. When I started 25-30 years ago, we were operating many of these because we were not so certain. Then MRI came, and MRI basically made the diagnosis so easy and straight-forward and we started observing

patients. We still do operate today, but they are very large tumors and when I do personally, I avoid the androbolization before because you have more skylotec reaction, just (grainy sound effect) to peel it away from the normal parenchymal.

This is our experience. - [Audience] Thank you. - [Speaker] Thank you very much, yes? - [Audience Member #2] Yes, one question. When you operate, and with all of the experience you have, what are the complications of

(mumbles) - [Speaker] The main, so first of all, there has been also an evolution in the type of operation we don't do anymore the resections where you have some bi-leaks. If you operate correctly, it's bleeding and one infection not one born. If you have to watch bi-leak is the one

that you have to watch and that's because the tissue is pushed away and you may miss something during the enucleation.

- Thank you very much. I'm going to talk on Improper and Suboptimal Antiplatelet Therapy which is probably currently the standard on most carotid angioplasty stent trials and I'm going to show you how it could potentially affect all of the results we have seen so far. I have nothing to disclose.

So introduction, based on the composite end point of stroke/death in our technical trials, they're always, in all randomized trials Endarterectomy always did marginally better than Carotid angioplasty and stenting. However, a small shift, just about a one person shift

could make carotid artery stenting better could shift the results of all these carotid stent trials. Let's just look at CREST. I think it's the gold standard for randomized trial comparing endarterectomy with stenting. You can see the combined death, streak and MI rate.

For endarterectomy, it's 6.8%, for CAS, 7.2%. For stroke, again 2.3, 4.1. Again, it's a one person shift in a direction of making stents better could actually show that stents were favorable, but comparable to it, not just inferior.

Now if you look at the data on CREST, it's very interesting that the majority of the strokes, about 80% of the strokes happened after about 24 hours. In fact, most of them happened on the third day period. So it wasn't a technical issue. You know, the biggest issue with current stenting

that we find is that we have filters, we have floor reversal. They're very worried about the time we place the stent, that we balloon, pre- and post-, but it wasn't a technical issue. Something was happening after 24 hours.

Another interesting fact that no one speaks about is if you look at the CREST data a little bit in more detail, most of the mortality associated with the stenting was actually associated with an access site bleed.

So if you could really decrease the late strokes, if you can decrease the access site bleeds, I think stents can be performed better than endarterectomies. The study design for all stent trials, there was a mandatory dual antiplatelet therapy.

Almost all patients had to be on aspirin and Plavix and on CREST, interestingly, they had to be on 75 milligrams BID for Plavix so they were all on very high dose Plavix. Now here's the interesting thing about Plavix that most people don't know.

Plavix is what is called a pro-drug. It requires to be converted to its active component by the liver for antiplatelet effect. And the particular liver enzyme that converts Plavix to its active metabolic enzyme is very variable patient to patient

and you're born that way. You're either born where you can convert its active metabolite or you can't convert it to its active metabolite and a test that's called 2C19 is actually interesting approved and covered by Medicare and here's the people

that read the black box warning for Plavix, that looked at the package insert. I just cut and paste this on the package that said for Plavix. I'm just showing you a few lines from the package insert. Now next to aspirin, it's the commonest prescribed drug

by vascular specialists, but most people probably have not looked at the package insert that says effectiveness of Plavix depends on activation by a liver enzyme called 2C19 and goes on to say that tests are available to identify to 2C19 genotype.

And then they go on to actually give you a recommendation on the package insert that says consider alternative treatment strategies in patients identified as 2C19 poor metabolizers. Now these are the people who cannot metabolize Plavix and convert them to its active metabolite.

So let's look at the actual incidents. Now we know there is resistance to, in some patients, to aspirin, but the incident is so small it doesn't make worth our time or doesn't make it worth the patient's outcome to be able to test everyone for aspirin resistance,

but look at the incidents for Plavix resistance. Again, this is just a slide explaining what does resistance mean so if you're a normal metabolizer, which we hope that most of us would be, you're going to expect advocacy from Plavix at 75 milligrams once a day.

Other hand, let's say you're a rapid or ultrarapid metabolizer. You have a much higher risk of bleeding. And then if you go to the other side where you are normal, intermediate or poor metabolizer, you're not going to convert Plavix to its active metabolite

and poor metabolizers, it's like giving a placebo. And interestingly, I'm a poor metabolizer. I got myself tested. If I ever have a cardiac interventionalist give me Plavix, they're giving me a placebo. So let's look at the actual incidents

of all these subsets in patients and see whether that's going to be an issue. So we took this from about 7,000 patients and interestingly in only about 40%, NM stands for nominal metabolizer or normal metabolizers. So only 40% get the expected efficacy of Plavix.

Let's look at just the extremes. Let's just assume people with normal metabolizers, normal intermediate and the subgroup between the ultra rapid, the normals, they're all going to respond well to Plavix. Let's just look at the extremes.

Ultra rapid and poor metabolizers. So these are the people who are going to convert Plavix to a much higher concentration of its active metabolite, but have a much higher risk of bleeding. Ultra rapid metabolizers. Poor metabolizers, Plavix doesn't work.

4%, 3%. That's not a small incidence. Now in no way am I saying that carotid stent trials itselves are totally based on Plavix resistance, but just look at the data from CREST. Let's say the patients with poor metabolizers,

that's 3%, so these people did not get Plavix. Plavix does not affect you in doses of up to 600 milligram for people with poor metabolizers. Incidents of embolic events in CREST trial for carotid stents was 4%. This happened after three days.

I believe it's possibly related to platelet debris occurring in the stent on people who did not receive a liquid anti-platelet therapy. How about the people who had the groin bleed? Remember I told you that access site bleeds were most highly predictable mortality.

If you're the ultra rapid metabolizers, that incidence was 4%. So these were the people that convert Plavix with a very high dose of active metabolite, very high risk of bleeding. Access site bleed rate,

if you look at the major/minor rates, 4.1%, very close to the ultra rapid metabolizers. So fact remains that carotid angioplasty stenting post procedure events are highly dependent on appropriate antiplatelet therapy to minimize embolic events and to decrease groin bleeds.

So in conclusion, if we just included 2C19 normal metabolizers, as was recommended by the packaging insert, so just test the people, include the people on normal metabolizers, exclude the rest, we are probably going to shift the results in favor of carotid angioplasty and stenting.

Results of all carotid angioplasty stent trials need to be questioned as a significant number of patients in the carotid angioplasty stent arm did not receive appropriate antiplatelet therapy. Thank you very much.

- Lymphatic, so it's fun, actually, not to talk on venous interventions for once. And, naturally, the two systems are very different. But, on the other hand, they're also related in several ways and I will come back to that later. I have no disclosures, maybe only my gratitude to this man, Dr. Maxim Itkin,

who actually got me started in the field, and was gracious enough to supply me some of his material. And who is also responsible for making our lives way easier over the last years. Because in former times, we needed to do, to visualize the lymphatic system,

we needed to do pedal lymphangiography and that was very, very cumbersome. It took a long time and was very painful for the patient. And he introduced the ultrasound guided intranodal lymphangiography,

and that's fairly easy for most of us. With ultrasound you find a lymph node in the groin, you puncture that and you can control the needle position with contrast enhanced ultrasound and once you establish that position, you might do a MR lymphangiography.

Thereby showing, in this case, a beautiful, normal anatomy of the thoracic duct. I need to say, the variations in lymphatics are extreme. So, you can also visualize, naturally, the pathology, like for example, pulmonary lymphatic perfusion syndrome.

What's going on there. Normally, lymph courses up through thoracic duct, but in this case, you kind of have a reflux in the bronchial tree and lymph leakage. And you can image that again, beautifully with MR, which you can show extensive leakage

of lymph in the lung parenchyma. So you can treat that. How can you treat that? By embolization of the thoracic duct. But first we need to get into there, and that's not a very easy thing to do.

But now, again, with access to a lymph node in the groin, you can push lipiodol, and then visualize the cisterna chyli and access that transcutaneously with a 21/22 gauge needle and then push up a O-18 wire high up in the thoracic duct.

First you deploy some coils to prevent any leakage of glue inside the venous system, and then by microcatheter, you infuse glue all the way down, embolizing the thoracic duct. So, complete different group of lymphatic disorders is oriented in the liver and hepatic lymphatic disorders.

And maybe not everybody knows that, but 80% of the flow in the thoracic duct is caused by the liver and by the intestine. And many times in lymphatic disorders, there needs to be a combination of two factors. One factor is a venous variation of a,

sorry, an anatomical variation in lymph vessels and the other one is that we have an increase in lymph flow. And in the liver, that can be caused by a congestion of the liver, for example, cirrhosis, or a right side, that's congested heart failure.

What happens then is you increase the flow, the lymph flow, tremendously and if you also have a variation like in this case, when the vessels do not directly course towards the cisterna chyli, but in very close contact to the abdomen,

then you can have leakage of the lymph and leakage of proteins, which is a serious problem. So, what is then, to do next? You can access the lymph vessels in the liver by percutaneous access in the periportal space,

and induce some contrast and then later, visualize that one back, visualize that with dye that you can see with an endoscopy, thereby proving your diagnosis, and then, in a similar way,

you can induce lipiodol again with glue, embolizing the lymph vessels in the liver, treating the problem. In summary, popularity of lymphatic interventions really increased over the last years mainly because novel imaging,

novel interventional techniques, new approaches, and we all gained more experience. If you would like, I would guess that, we are at a phase where we were at venous, like 10, 15 years ago. If we are a little bit positive,

then the future is very bright. And within 10, 15 years, we find new indications and probably have much more to tell you. Thank you for your attention.

- Thank you (mumbles) and thank you Dr. Veith for the kind invitation to participate in this amazing meeting. This is work from Hamburg mainly and we all know that TEVAR is the first endovascular treatment of choice but a third of our patients will fail to remodel and that's due to the consistent and persistent

flow in the false lumen over the re-entrance in the thoracoabdominal aorta. Therefore it makes sense to try to divide the compartments of the aorta and try to occlude flow in the false lumen and this can be tried by several means as coils, plug and glue

but also iliac occluders but they all have the disadvantage that they don't get over 24 mm which is usually not enough to occlude the false lumen. Therefore my colleague, Tilo Kolbel came up with this first idea with using

a pre-bulged stent graft at the midportion which after ballooning disrupts the dissection membrane and opposes the outer wall and therefore occludes backflow into the aneurysm sac in the thoracic segment, but the most convenient

and easy to use tool is the candy-plug which is a double tapered endograft with a midsegment that is 18 mm and once implanted in the false lumen at the level of the supraceliac aorta it occludes the backflow in the false lumen in the thoracic aorta

and we have seen very good remodeling with this approach. You see here a patient who completely regressed over three years and it also answers the question how it behaves with respect to true and false lumen. The true lumen always wins and because once

the false lumen thrombosis and the true lumen also has the arterial pressure it does prevail. These are the results from Hamburg with an experience of 33 patients and also the international experience with the CMD device that has been implanted in more than 20 cases worldwide

and we can see that the interprocedural technical success is extremely high, 100% with no irrelevant complications and also a complete false lumen that is very high, up to 95%. This is the evolvement of the candy-plug

over the years. It started as a surgeon modified graft just making a tie around one of the stents evolving to a CMD and then the last generation candy-plug II that came up 2017 and the difference, or the new aspect

of the candy-plug II is that it has a sleeve inside and therefore you can retrieve the dilator without having to put another central occluder or a plug in the central portion. Therefore when the dilator is outside of the sleeve the backflow occludes the sleeve

and you don't have to do anything else, but you have to be careful not to dislodge the whole stent graft while retrieving the dilator. This is a case of a patient with post (mumbles) dissection.

This is the technique of how we do it, access to the false lumen and deployment of the stent graft in the false lumen next to the true lumen stent graft being conscious of the fact that you don't go below the edge of the true lumen endograft

to avoid (mumbles) and the final angiography showing no backflow in the aneurysm. This is how we measure and it's quite simple. You just need about a centimeter in the supraceliac aorta where it's not massively dilated and then you just do an over-sizing

in the false lumen according to the Croissant technique as Ste-phan He-lo-sa has described by 10 to 30% and what is very important is that in these cases you don't burn any bridges. You can still have a good treatment

of the thoracic component and come back and do the fenestrated branch repair for the thoracoabdominal aorta if you have to. Thank you very much for your attention. (applause)

- Thank you again, Dr. Veith, for the kind invitation to talk about this topic. This year, these are my disclosure. In the last five years, we treated 76 cases of Fenestrated and Branched repair for torque abdominal unfit for open surgery. And we soon realized that the upper extremity access

is needed in almost up to 90% of the cases. The first cases were managed by standard cut down in high-brachial and brachial region, but as soon as we improved our skills in percutaneous approach for the groins, we moved also in a transaxillary and percutaneous access

in the area. What we learned from the tanvis group of Hamburg is that the best spot to puncture the artery is the first segment, so the segment within the clavicula and the pectoralis minor. And to do so it is mandatory to use an echoguidance

during the procedure. Here you can see how nicely you can evaluate your axillary artery and avoid puncture the artery through the pectoralis minor where there are nerves and collaterals and also collaterals of the vein. Here is short video you can see I'm puncturing

the axillary artery just below the clavicula with a short guide wire, we introduce 6 French sheath and then we place two proglides according to the instruction for use of the device for the femoral artery. And at the end we usually put a 9 French short sheet

and then we start the procedure. As soon as we are finished with the main body of the, finished with the graft and we have bridged all the vessels from below, we downsize the femoral access but we keep in one groin a 7 French sheath

in order to perform then the final closure. What we do as soon as we are finished the complete procedure we snare a wire from the femoral artery we push the seven French sheath in the axillary artery, we pull back the 12 French sheath in the axillary artery and then we are ready to unlink the two sheath

and so we push a wire in the axillary, from the axillary in the aorta, and one wire in the arm. So that we can deploy a balloon which is sized according to the axillary artery diameter we inflate the balloon and we remove the 12 French sheath and now it is possible to tie the knot of the proglide

over the balloon without any worry to have bleeding and we check with the wire then we remove the wire and then we tie the know of the proglide again. And we ensure that there is no defect and leaking on this region. We have done so far 50 cases and they are

enrolled in this study which is almost completed. And here you can see the results. We have mainly punctured the left side of the axillary, you can see that nicely the diameter of the axillary artery in this region is 8.9 millimeter the sheath size was mainly the 12 French

but we also use sometime the 16 in cases which on iliac was not available. And we also punctured the artery if there was a pacemaker or previous scar for cardiac operation. And here are the results you can see we had no open conversion, the technical success

was 92% of the cases because we are to deploy three cover stent to achieve complete sealing and one bare stent to treat dissection distally to the puncture site. We didn't have any false aneurysm on the follow up and arterial thrombosis and no nerve injuries

in the follow up. So for the discussion, if you look on the research where there are different approach in the discussion is called either to go for the first or the third segment we believe that the first segment is better because it is bigger, is more proximal

and there are no nerves in this region. And by proximalizing the approach you can also work from the right side of your patient so you don't need the guy left side of the table. Moreover, by having the 12 and the standard 19 seven french sheath you can enhance your pushability

here you can see that the 12 french sheath arrives close to the branch of renal artery and the seven french sheath is well within the renal branch. And here you can see where the hands of the operator are. Of course if you enhance this technique you can downsize contra arterial femoral sheath

needed to reach three vessels so maybe lowering your risk of limb ischemia and paraplegia and if you insert this approach in the femoral percutaneous approach, you can see that you can cut down your procedural time your OR occupation time and also

the need of post operative transfusion. So dear chairman and colleagues in conclusion, in our experience the first segment is the way to go. Echo guided puncture is mandatory. Balloon assisted removal is the safest way to do it. Our results prove that it's feasible and safe.

There are different potential advantages over branchial and cutdown. And we hope to collect more data to have more robust data to support this approach. Thank you.

- So PAD affects five million adults in the United States today, and we know the US population is aging. And 15 to 20% of folks 70 years and older have claudication, a minority of these progress to CLI, and the impact on lifestyle is often minimized, as demonstrated in decreased quality of life scores

in these patients. Now with active tobacco use, there is acceleration of disease towards claudication, and there are higher rates of amputation, MI, and death. But prior to open or endo intervention, the SVS Guidelines recommend supervised exercise,

medical therapy with statins, beta blockers, antiantiplatelets, and Cilostazol, and an aggressive multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation, which should last no less than six months. But what if a patient can't stop smoking?

We've all had these patients. Should patients with lifestyle limiting claudication be denied open surgical or endo-revascularization? So let's look at the open literature. A meta-analysis performed in 2005 of 29 eligible studies. The results were that bypass graft failure

was three times that in smokers versus nonsmokers. There was a dose response relationship in smoking cessation prior to or after bypass, equalized patencies. A more recent study, published in JVS in September, queried the VSGNE, 1789 lower extremity bypasses, 971 were nonsmokers, 818 were smokers,

and what they found was that primary patency at two years was 48% in smokers, versus 61% in nonsmokers, and when they propensity matched these patients, there was even a greater difference. 10 year survival was also decreased. And in another article,

published in August of this year in JVS, again a VSGNE study, over 2,000 patients, almost 3,000 patients with lower extremity bypass for claudication. The results looked at MALE, amputation-free survival, limb loss, death, major limb events or death,

and they found that current smoking was a significant predictor of major adverse limb events, and major adverse limb events or death. But do active smokers have worse outcomes after endovascular interventions? So, let's look at the literature again.

And there is none. The only paper I could find was a Markov decision analysis, in which compared revascularization in active smokers to medical management, this was a retrospective study, and their results demonstrated better quality of life in smokers after revascularization versus medical therapy.

The quality of life was similar, after revascularization in nonsmokers and smokers, and there was no increase in amputation rates up to 36 months. Also, 26% of the folks that were revascularized, quit tobacco use after their quality of life was improved.

So we decided to do a small study at my hospital. The outcome of endovascular interventions in active smokers with lifestyle limiting claudication versus nonsmokers. This was retrospective. 138 total patients with endovascular intervention for claudication, 47 were current tobacco users,

91 were never or former smokers. The primary endpoints were reintervention, secondary endpoints, surgical bypass, limb loss, MI, stroke and death. And here you can see, as in most studies, the smokers were a younger population,

and anticoagulation, in our patient population, was more common. As far as comorbidities, they were more common, as in most studies, in the nonsmoking group. And in a mean followup of 3.6 years for both groups, there was no statistically significant difference

between the two groups for any of the outcome measures. So in conclusion, active smokers with lifestyle limiting claudication, we would advocate, of course, smoking cessation. Outcomes with respect to reintervention, surgical bypass and limb loss appear to be equivalent in these two groups.

We feel that these patients should not be denied endovascular intervention, and improved quality of life after intervention may result in an increase in smoking cessation in this patient population. Limitations are obvious, this was a very small study,

and retrospective, and we are actually extending this study to look at several hundred additional patients. So I thank you for your attention.

- Thank you very much for inviting me here again and I'll be talking about thermal ablation RCTs. My coauthor, Michel Perrin from Lyon, in France, the gourmet capital in the world has collected RCTs on operative treatment of CVD since 1990. Today he has 186 collected RCTs

of the which 84 involve thermal ablation. You can find all this data for free in Phlebolymphology.org. Do we need further RCTs? Well systematic reviews and meta-analyses increasingly important in evidence-based medicine. And this development is well-described

by Gurevitch in Nature this year and criticized by Ioannidis two years earlier. Common sense is a good principle when you try to understand meta-analyses. Do most studies point in the same direction?

Is the effect significant? Are the patient-related outcome measures relevant and what happens if you exclude one study? Since 2008, 10 years back, these are the available meta-analyses and the last came from Ireland earlier this year.

It was published in the JVS, endovenous and in fact this is in March. And they found nine RCTs comparing conventional surgery and endovenous therapy with five years or more follow-up that were selected. Primary outcome was recurrence rate.

There is some sole recurrence rate was that there is no significant difference in laser versus surgery, same for radioactive frequency versus surgery and radioactive frequency versus laser. They found an inferiority

of ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy versus laser and surgery. Their conclusions were that the quality of evidence is poor therefore more trials that are well-powered to examine long-term outcomes are warranted. The new kids on the block,

steam, MOCA, and Venaseal, are not included in the meta-analyses due to lack of more than five years follow-up in their paper. Obsolete RCTs. Endovenous laser in the presented long-term RCTs

were performed by 810-980 nanometer wavelength using a bare fiber. There is a paucity of RCTs comparing open surgery with novel endovenous laser and new RF techniques. Recent criticism against endovenous ablation, is the pendulum swinging towards high ligation

and stripping again? Olle Nelzen from Sweden in an editorial in British Journal of Surgery reconsidering the endovenous revolution, wrote that neovascularization is a dominant finding following high ligation and stripping

but proximal venous stumps and incompetent anterior accessory saphenous veins are the main factor after endovenous ablation. So long-term follow-up suggests that the recurrence rate after endovenous ablation seem to increase over time. A substantial number of patients who have undergone

endovenous ablation will eventually develop symptomatic recurrence requiring repeat therapy. And such scenario would change the equation regarding patient benefit and costs making endovenous ablation less competitive and challenging current guidelines.

So summary of needs for further RCTs. Quality of present RCTs poor in several meta-analyses, no thermal endovenous technique is superior to open surgery, RCTs rapidly obsolete due to change in technology, and more trials that are well-powered to examine long-term outcomes are warranted.

So final point, apparently we need more RCTs to satisfy the quality requirements for clinically important systematic reviews and meta-analyses. And what about the clinical guidelines? Thank you very much.

- So I have the honor to provide you with the 12-month result of the TOBA II trial. I guess we all confirmed that this action is the primary mechanism of angioplasty. We all know that lesions of dissection have a TLR rate of 3.5 times higher than lesions without dissection.

The current tools for dissection repair, these are stents. They have limitations, really a large metal load left behind causing inflammation. This is leading to in-stent restenosis. So the Tack Endovascular System.

It's a delivery system over six French catheter. This is for above the knee with six implants pre-loaded on a single catheter. The Tack implant itself, it has an adaptive sizing, so it adapts to the diameter of the vessel from 2.6 up to 6.0 for SFA and PPA usage.

It's a nitinol implant with gold radiopaque markers for visibility. Has a unique anchoring system, which prevents migration, and a deck which is deployed in six millimeter in length. So with regard to the TOBA II study design,

this was a prospective multi-center single-arm non-blinded study at 33 sites in US and Europe. We enrolled 213 subjects. These were all subjects with post-PTA dissection. So only with a dissection visible on the angiogram, the patients could be enrolled into this study.

We had the usually primary safety end point, primary efficacy end points, which we are familiar from other trials and other studies so far. With regard to the inclusion criteria, I just want to look at this very briefly.

Mainly we had de novo or non-stented restenotic lesions in the SFA P1. If it was a stenosis, the lesion length could be up to 150 millimeter. If it was a total occlusion, the length was up to 10 centimeters.

They had to be the presence of at least one target run of vessel to the foot. They had to be a post residual, post-PTA residual stenosis of lower than 30%, and the presence of at least one dissection Grade A to F. With regard to the key lesion characteristics,

baseline for the different patients, there was not a big difference to other studies out there. The only difference was maybe we had slightly more patients with diabetes. The lesion, the target lesion length, the mean target lesion length was up to 74 millimeters.

We also had patients with calcification, mainly moderate but also some with severe calcification. There were two met the primary end points. The 30-day freedom from major adverse event, and also the primary efficacy end point at 12 months, which was a freedom from clinical driven TLR,

and freedom from core lab adjudicated duplex ultrasound derived binary restenosis. Now, with regard to patency in a patient cohort, where we really had 100% dissected vessel at 100% dissected vessel population, we had primary patency at 12-month of 79.3%

and a freedom clinical driven TLR of 86.5%. There was with regard to dissection severity, we had 369 total dissections we were treating. The number of dissections per subject was 1.8. The mean dissection length was two centimeters. So around 70% of subjects had a dissection of

Grade C or greater before using the Tack. In 92.1% of all dissections, this could be completely resolved with a Tack. With regard to the Tack stability and durability, in total, 871 Tacks have been deployed. So that was a number of 4.1 Tacks per subject.

The bailout stent rate was very low, just one. The freedom from Tack fracture at 12 months, 100%, and there was one minor Tack migration at 12 months with education by the core lab so the Tack was not seen at the same place as six months or 12 months before.

There was significant clinical improvement with Rutherford category improvement in 63%, which improved of up to two classes. There was also an improvement in ABI, walking impairment questionnaire. So just to conclude, TOBA II is a unique trial.

First to enroll 100% dissected vessels. Successfully met the primary efficacy and safety end points, and demonstrated the Tack is an efficient repair system for dissections after POBA or DCB with minimum metal left behind, low radial force, stable and durable design,

and preservation of future treatment options. There was only a very, very low bailout stent rate. This in combination with high patency rate and high freedom from clinical TLR. Thank you very much.

- Thank you. I have two talks because Dr. Gaverde, I understand, is not well, so we- - [Man] Thank you very much. - We just merged the two talks. All right, it's a little joke. For today's talk we used fusion technology

to merge two talks on fusion technology. Hopefully the rest of the talk will be a little better than that. (laughs) I think we all know from doing endovascular aortic interventions

that you can be fooled by the 2D image and here's a real life view of how that can be an issue. I don't think I need to convince anyone in this room that 3D fusion imaging is essential for complex aortic work. Studies have clearly shown it decreases radiation,

it decreases fluoro time, and decreases contrast use, and I'll just point out that these data are derived from the standard mechanical based systems. And I'll be talking about a cloud-based system that's an alternative that has some advantages. So these traditional mechanical based 3D fusion images,

as I mentioned, do have some limitations. First of all, most of them require manual registration which can be cumbersome and time consuming. Think one big issue is the hardware based tracking system that they use. So they track the table rather than the patient

and certainly, as the table moves, and you move against the table, the patient is going to move relative to the table, and those images become unreliable. And then finally, the holy grail of all 3D fusion imaging is the distortion of pre-operative anatomy

by the wires and hardware that are introduced during the course of your procedure. And one thing I'd like to discuss is the possibility that deep machine learning might lead to a solution to these issues. How does 3D fusion, image-based 3D fusion work?

Well, you start, of course with your pre-operative CT dataset and then you create digitally reconstructed radiographs, which are derived from the pre-op CTA and these are images that resemble the fluoro image. And then tracking is done based on the identification

of two or more vertebral bodies and an automated algorithm matches the most appropriate DRR to the live fluoro image. Sounds like a lot of gobbledygook but let me explain how that works. So here is the AI machine learning,

matching what it recognizes as the vertebral bodies from the pre-operative CT scan to the fluoro image. And again, you get the CT plus the fluoro and then you can see the overlay with the green. And here's another version of that or view of that.

You can see the AI machine learning, identifying the vertebral bodies and then on your right you can see the fusion image. So just, once again, the AI recognizes the bony anatomy and it's going to register the CT with the fluoro image. It tracks the patient, not the table.

And the other thing that's really important is that it recognizes the postural change that the patient undergoes between the posture during the CT scan, versus the posture on the OR table usually, or often, under general anesthesia. And here is an image of the final overlay.

And you can see the visceral and renal arteries with orange circles to identify them. You can remove those, you can remove any of those if you like. This is the workflow. First thing you do is to upload the CT scan to the cloud.

Then, when you're ready to perform the procedure, that is downloaded onto the medical grade PC that's in your OR next to your fluoro screen, and as soon as you just step on the fluoro pedal, the CYDAR overlay appears next to your, or on top of your fluoro image,

next to your regular live fluoro image. And every time you move the table, the computer learning recognizes that the images change, and in a couple of seconds, it replaces with a new overlay based on the obliquity or table position that you have. There are some additional advantages

to cloud-based technology over mechanical technology. First of all, of course, or hardware type technology. Excuse me. You can upgrade it in real time as opposed to needing intermittent hardware upgrades. Works with any fluoro equipment, including a C-arm,

so you don't have to match your 3D imaging to the brand of your fluoro imaging. And there's enhanced accuracy compared to mechanical registration systems as imaging. So what are the clinical applications that this can be utilized for?

Fluoroscopy guided endovascular procedures in the lower thorax, abdomen, and pelvis, so that includes EVAR and FEVAR, mid distal TEVAR. At present, we do need two vertebral bodies and that does limit the use in TEVAR. And then angioplasty stenting and embolization

of common iliac, proximal external and proximal internal iliac artery. Anything where you can acquire a vertebral body image. So here, just a couple of examples of some additional non EVAR/FEVAR/TEVAR applications. This is, these are some cases

of internal iliac embolization, aortoiliac occlusion crossing, standard EVAR, complex EVAR. And I think then, that the final thing that I'd like to talk about is the use with C-arm, which is think is really, extremely important.

Has the potential to make a very big difference. All of us in our larger OR suites, know that we are short on hybrid availability, and yet it's difficult to get our institutions to build us another hybrid room. But if you could use a high quality 3D fusion imaging

with a high quality C-arm, you really expand your endovascular capability within the operating room in a much less expensive way. And then if you look at another set of circumstances where people don't have a hybrid room at all, but do want to be able to offer standard EVAR

to their patients, and perhaps maybe even basic FEVAR, if there is such a thing, and we could use good quality imaging to do that in the absence of an actual hybrid room. That would be extremely valuable to be able to extend good quality care

to patients in under-served areas. So I just was mentioning that we can use this and Tara Mastracci was talking yesterday about how happy she is with her new room where she has the use of CYDAR and an excellent C-arm and she feels that she is able to essentially run two rooms,

two hybrid rooms at once, using the full hybrid room and the C-arm hybrid room. Here's just one case of Dr. Goverde's. A vascular case that he did on a mobile C-arm with aortoiliac occlusive disease and he places kissing stents

using a CYDAR EV and a C-arm. And he used five mils of iodinated contrast. So let's talk about a little bit of data. This is out of Blain Demorell and Tara Mastrachi's group. And this is use of fusion technology in EVAR. And what they found was that the use of fusion imaging

reduced air kerma and DSA runs in standard EVAR. We also looked at our experience recently in EVAR and FEVAR and we compared our results. Pre-availability of image based fusion CT and post image based fusion CT. And just to clarify,

we did have the mechanical product that Phillip's offers, but we abandoned it after using it a half dozen times. So it's really no image fusion versus image fusion to be completely fair. We excluded patients that were urgent/emergent, parallel endographs, and IBEs.

And we looked at radiation exposure, contrast use, fluoro time, and procedure time. The demographics in the two groups were identical. We saw a statistically significant decrease in radiation dose using image based fusion CT. Statistically a significant reduction in fluoro time.

A reduction in contrast volume that looks significant, but was not. I'm guessing because of numbers. And a significantly different reduction in procedure time. So, in conclusion, image based 3D fusion CT decreases radiation exposure, fluoro time,

and procedure time. It does enable 3D overlays in all X-Ray sets, including mobile C-arm, expanding our capabilities for endovascular work. And image based 3D fusion CT has the potential to reduce costs

and improve clinical outcomes. Thank you.

- [Professor Veith] Laura, Welcome. - Thank you Professor Veith, thank you to everybody and good morning. It's a great pleasure, to have the possibility to present the result of this randomized trial we performed near Rome in Italy.

Risk of CAS-related embolism was maximal during the first phases of the second procedure, the filter positioning predilation and deployment and post dilatation. But it continues over time with nithinol expansion so that we have an interaction between the stent struts

and the plaque that can last up to 28 or 30 days that is the so called plaque healing period. This is why over time different technique and devices have been developed in order to keep to a minimum the rate of perioperative neurological embolization.

This is why we have, nowadays, membrane-covered stent or mesh-covered stent. But a question we have to answer, in our days are, "are mesh covered stents able to capture every kind of embolism?" Even the off-table one.

This is why they have been designed. That is to say the embolism that occurs after the patient has left the operating room. This is why we started this randomized trial with the aim of comparing the rate of off-table subclinical neurological events

in two groups of patients submitted to CAS with CGuard or WALLSTENT and distal embolic protection device in all of them. We enrolled patient affected by asymptomatic carotid stenosis more than 70% and no previous brain ischemic lesion

detected at preoperative DW-MRI. The primary outcome was the rate of perioperative up to 72 hour post peri operatively in neurological ischemic events detected by DW-MRI in the two CAS group. And secondary outcome measure were the rise of (mumbles)

neuro biomarker as one on the better protein in NSE and the variation in post procedural mini mental state examination test in MoCA test score We enrolled 29 patients for each treatment group. The study protocol was composed by a preoperative DW-MRI and neuro psychometrics test assessment

and the assessment of blood levels of this two neuro biomarkers. Then, after the CAS procedure, we performed an immediate postoperative DW-MRI, we collect this sample up to 48 hours post operatively to assess the level of the neuro biomarkers

then assess 72 hour postoperatively we perform a new DW-MRI and a new assessment of neuro psychometric tests. 58 patient were randomized 29 per group. And we found one minor stroke in the CGuard group together with eight clinically silent lesion detected at 72 hours DW-MRI.

Seven patient presented in WALLSTENT group silent 72 DW-MRI lesion were no difference between the two groups but interestingly two patients presented immediately postoperatively DW-MRI lesions. Those lesion were no more detectable at 72 hours

this give doubts to what we are going to see with DW-MRI. When analyzing the side of the lesion, we found four ipsilateral lesion in the CGuard patient and four contra or bilateral lesion in this group while four ipsilateral were encountered in WALLSTENT patient and three contra or bilateral lesion

in the WALLSTENT group were no difference between the two groups. And as for the diameter of the lesion, there were incomparable in the two groups but more than five lesion were found in five CGuard patients, three WALLSTENT patient

with no significant difference within the two groups. A rise doubled of S1 of the better protein was observed at 48 hours in 24 patients, 12 of them presenting new DW-MRI lesions. And this was statistically significant when comparing the 48 level with the bars of one.

When comparing results between the two groups for the tests, we found for pre and post for MMSE and MoCA test no significant difference even if WALLSTENT patients presented better MoCA test post operatively and no significant difference for the postoperative score for both the neuro psychometric test between the two groups.

But when splitting patients not according to the treatment group but according to the presence of more or less than 5 lesion at DW-MRI, we found a significant difference in the postoperative score for both MMSE and MoCA test between both group pf patients.

To conclude, WALLSTENT and CGuard stent showed that not significant differences in micro embolism rate or micro emboli number at 72 postoperative hours DW-MRI, in our experience. 72 hour DW-MMRI lesion were associated to an increase in neuro biomarkers

and more than five lesion were significantly associated to a decrease in neuro psychometric postoperative score in both stent groups. But a not negligible number of bilateral or contralateral lesions were detected in both stent groups This is very important.

This is why, probably, (mumbles) are right when they show us what really happened into the arch when we perform a transfer more CAS and this is why, maybe,

the future can be to completely avoid the arch. I thank you for your attention.

- Good morning. I'd like to thank Dr. Veith and Symposium for my opportunity to speak. I have no disclosures. So the in Endovascular Surgery, there is decrease open surgical bypass. But, bypass is still required for many patients with PAD.

Autologous vein is preferred for increase patency lower infection rate. And, Traditional Open Vein Harvest does require lengthy incisions. In 1996 cardiac surgery reported Endoscopic Vein Harvest. So the early prospective randomized trial

in the cardiac literature, did report wound complications from Open Vein Harvest to be as high as 19-20%, and decreased down to 4% with Endoscopic Vein Harvest. Lopes et al, initially, reported increase risk of 12-18 month graft failure and increased three year mortality.

But, there were many small studies that show no effect on patency and decreased wound complications. So, in 2005, Endoscopic Vein Harvest was recommended as standard of care in cardiac surgical patients. So what about our field? The advantages of Open Vein Harvest,

we all know how to do it. There's no learning curve. It's performed under direct visualization. Side branches are ligated with suture and divided sharply. Long term patency of the bypass is established. Disadvantages of the Open Vein Harvest,

large wound or many skip wounds has an increased morbidity. PAD patients have an increased risk for wound complications compared to the cardiac patients as high as 22-44%. The poor healing can be due to ischemia, diabetes, renal failure, and other comorbid conditions.

These can include hematoma, dehiscense, infection, and increased length of stay. So the advantages of Endoscopic Vein Harvest, is that there's no long incisions, they can be performed via one or two small incisions. Limiting the size of an incision

decreases wound complications. It's the standard of care in cardiac surgery, and there's an overall lower morbidity. The disadvantages of is that there's a learning curve. Electro-cautery is used to divide the branches, you need longer vein compared to cardiac surgery.

There's concern about inferior primary patency, and there are variable wound complications reported. So recent PAD data, there, in 2014, a review of the Society of Vascular Surgery registry, of 5000 patients, showed that continuous Open Vein Harvest

was performed 49% of the time and a Endo Vein Harvest about 13% of the time. The primary patency was 70%, for Continuous versus just under 59% for Endoscopic, and that was significant. Endoscopic Vein Harvest was found to be an independent risk factor for a lower one year

primary patency, in the study. And, the length of stay due to wounds was not significantly different. So, systematic review of Endoscopic Vein Harvest data in the lower extremity bypass from '96 to 2013 did show that this technique may reduce

primary patency with no change in wound complications. Reasons for decreased primary patency, inexperienced operator, increased electrocautery injury to the vein. Increase in vein manipulation, you can't do the no touch technique,

like you could do with an Open Harvest. You need a longer conduit. So, I do believe there's a roll for this, in the vascular surgeon's armamentarium. I would recommend, how I use it in my practices is, I'm fairly inexperienced with Endoscopic Vein Harvest,

so I do work with the cardiac PA's. With increased percutaneous procedures, my practice has seen decreased Saphenous Vein Bypasses, so, I've less volume to master the technique. If the PA is not available, or the conduit is small, I recommend an Open Vein Harvest.

The PA can decrease the labor required during these cases. So, it's sometimes nice to have help with these long cases. Close surveillance follow up with Non-Invasive Arterial Imaging is mandatory every three months for the first year at least. Thank you.

- Thank you Mr. Chairman, thank you Dr. Veith for the kind invitation. I have no disclosures relevant to this particular lecture. But I think we ought to talk about what critical limb ischemia is. Obviously it's what we call Rutherford four through six. It's most commonly associated with multi-level disease.

About 1/3 or so of the cases are infrapopliteal only, mostly in diabetic patients. There's very poor overall life expectancies. We look at this group of patients in multiple studies, it ranges somewhere between three and four years of average life expectancy,

and there are substantial differences in outcomes within critical limb ischemia, with far worse outcomes in those with poor overall health, advanced stage presentation, or poor runoff at the level of the foot. Now, what is the rationale for endovascular therapy

in critical limb ischemia? Well first, patients are often old and infirmed, and many aren't really considered candidates for open surgery because of poor overall health. Surgery requires inflow, usually attainable. Outflow, not always so easy.

A conduit, which typically should be vein, if we want durable results, and an incision. Active infection is problematic, as there may be graft infection or sepsis. Extensive surgical scarring may compromise future rescue intervention,

and this is a progressive disease, that often requires additional treatment. Now, there have been multiple publications, and this is just a recent one, which came out in the Journal of the American Heart Association. It's a multidisciplinary,

retrospective analysis of Medicare data in people who had presented with critical limb ischemia. This is not perspective, it's not sited in many areas, but I ask you to look at this conclusion. It was there was lower major amputation rates following endovascular therapy.

Both surgery and endovascular did better than primary amputation, in terms of outcomes. But again, this is not a perfect study. Now, we have many publications which have shown very good limb salvage rates in patients using interventions.

Here we see this from Faglia, again showing very low major amputation rates. This from Sam Ahn, once again, very good limb salvage rates. But in truth, we have only one randomized, control trial, level one data, comparing intervention with surgery. And that was the BASIL Trial.

The BASIL Trial is an old trial, it's criticized, appropriately, because the only treatment used was sub-intimal angioplasty. And with sub-intimal angioplasty, often, the sub-intimal tract in crossing is far greater than the area of total occlusion,

resulting in much longer treatment zones. In addition, this trial did not allow some of the new and better treatments that are now available for having better patency to be performed. Nonetheless, in the BASIL Trial, despite very primitive treatment,

that being only sub-intimal angioplasty, we can see that one year out, and in fact out to two years, angioplasty and surgery were relatively equal in terms of limb salvage. At five years, there seemed to be a major advantage to surgery,

in terms of both quality of life, and in terms of less need for reintervention. So then we have to ask, what has changed since BASIL? Well now we have far better crossing. We have re-entry tools that stop us from having to go 10 centimeters

beyond the area of occlusion to get back in. Dedicated crossing tools, better wires, retrograde access, this is important, we have markedly improved patency, with drug coated balloons, drug-eluting stents, wire interwoven nitinol stents, and stent grafts, which have shown in the SFA all of these things,

better SFA patency, and if indeed, we can maintain SFA patency in multi-level disease, often, if there's recurrence, the patients do well. We also have improved Tibial patency in the proximal tibial vessels. However, we do not yet have a great endovascular solution

for long distal tibial vessel occlusions, and that's just the truth. I have to go back here, one, but we have better medical therapy too. As we look at PCSK9 inhibitors, in the GLAGOV Trial, we see in other parts of the body,

a 30% reduction in atherosclerotic volume out at 70 weeks, indeed will this change what we're doing. This has launched this decade of endovascular interventions. So what about this taking away surgical options? BASIL, I think, doesn't apply because the sections went far beyond where they should.

That's bad technique. Stenting across the common femoral or patent popliteal, in my opinion, bad technique. Distal embolization, we've not done enough preparation. I will also caution that sometimes, surgery has bad outcomes as well.

So, the rationale is we really don't want to perform anything that hurts a patient. Entire procedures performed via a sheath, remote from the site, there's less pain, shorter recovery, no extensive scar, and the argument that intervention

takes away surgical options, I think is no longer so valid. Bad intervention or bad surgery, take away options. Where is distal bypass indicated? In large non-healing ulcers in patients with good life expectancy, good quality vein, good outflow, and excellent surgical expertise.

Densely calcified long segment infrapopliteal disease, or disease from the common femoral all the way to the ankle. I think these clearly are going to do better with surgery, certainly in today's world. But even these areas may change. If more effective tools solve the patency problems,

with long segment infrapopliteal disease, and there are trials now aiming at this, such as SAVAL, DCB trials, and Lithoplasty. I thank you for your attention.

- Yeah now, I'm talking about another kind of vessel preparation device, which is dedicated to prevent the occurrence of embolic events and with these complications. That's a very typical appearance of an occluded stent with appositional stent thrombosis up to the femur bifurcation.

If you treat such a lesion simply with balloon angioplasty, you will frequently see some embolic debris going downstream, residing in this total occlusion of the distal pocket heel artery as a result of an embolus, which is fixed at the bifurcation of

the anterior tibial and the tibial planar trunk, what you can see over here. So rates of macro embolization have been described as high as 38% after femoral popliteal angioplasty. It can be associated with limb loss.

There is a risk of limb loss may be higher in patients suffering from poor run-off and critical limb ischemia. There is a higher rate of embolization for in-stent restenosis, in particular, in occluded stents and chronic total occlusions.

There is a higher rate of cause and longer lesions. This is the Vanguard IEP system. It's an integrated balloon angioplasty and embolic protection device. You can see over here, the handle. There is a rotational knob, where you can,

a top knob where you can deploy, and recapture the filter. This is the balloon, which is coming into diameters and three different lengths. This is the filter, 60 millimeter in length. The pore size is 150 micron,

which is sufficient enough to capture relevant debris going downstream. The device is running over an 80,000 or 14,000 guide-wire. This is a short animation about how the device does work. It's basically like a traditional balloon.

So first of all, we have to cross the lesion with a guide-wire. After that, the device can be inserted. It's not necessary to pre-dilate the lesion due to the lower profile of the capture balloon. So first of all, the capture filter,

the filter is exposed to the vessel wall. Then you perform your pre-dilatation or your dilatation. You have to wait a couple of second until the full deflation of the balloon, and then you recapture the filter, and remove the embolic debris.

So when to use it? Well, at higher risk for embolization, I already mentioned, which kind of lesions are at risk and at higher risk of clinical consequences that should come if embolization will occur. Here visible thrombus, acute limb ischemia,

chronic total occlusion, ulceration and calcification, large plaque volume and in-stent reocclusion of course. The ENTRAP Study was just recently finished. Regarding enrollment, more than 100 patients had been enrolled. I will share with you now the results

of an interim analysis of the first 50 patients. It's a prospective multi-center, non-randomized single-arm study with 30-day safety, and acute performance follow-up. The objective was to provide post-market data in the European Union to provide support for FDA clearance.

This is the balloon as you have seen already. It's coming in five and six millimeter diameter, and in lengths of 80, 120 and 200 millimeters. This is now the primary safety end point at 30 days. 53 subjects had been enrolled. There was no event.

So the safety composite end point was reached in 100%. The device success was also 100%. So all those lesions that had been intended to be treated could be approached with the device. The device could be removed successfully. This is a case example with short lesion

of the distal SFA. This is the device in place. That's the result after intervention. That's the debris which was captured inside the filter. Some more case examples of more massive debris captured in the tip of the filter,

in particular, in longer distance total occlusions. Even if this is not a total occlusion, you may see later on that in this diffused long distance SFA lesion, significant debris was captured. Considering the size of this embolus,

if this would have been a patient under CLI conditions with a single runoff vessel, this would have potentially harmed the patient. Thank you very much.

- The main results of the mid-term, I would call it rather than long-term, there were three years of the improved trial, were published almost immediately after the Veith Symposium last year. I have no disclosures other than to say this was a great team effort, and it wasn't just me,

it was all the many contributors to this project. I think the important thing to start with is to understand the design. This was a randomized trial of unselected patients with a clinical diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

The trial was to investigate whether EVAR as a first option, or an endovascular strategy, would save lives compared with open repair. We randomized 613 patients quite quickly across 30 centers, and this comprised 67 percent of those who would have been eligible for this trial, so good external validity.

Survival was the primary outcome for this trial. This was assessed at 30 days, one, and three years. At 30 days as you can see there was no difference between the endovascular strategy group in blue, and the open repair group in red. However, already at 30 days we noticed

that of the discharges in the endovascular strategy group, 97 percent of these went home, versus only 77 percent in the open repair group. No significant difference in survival at one year, but now out at three years, the survival is 56 percent in the endovascular strategy

group versus 48 percent in the open repair group. This is not quite significant. If we look only at the 502 patients who actually had a repair of a rupture, the benefits of the endovascular strategy are much stronger. And a compliance analysis,

because there were some crossovers in this pragmatic trial, shows very similar results. And for the 133 women, these were the real beneficiaries of an endovascular strategy. The cumulative incidence of re-interventions to three years are shown here, and no difference between open

and endovascular strategy. And I'll dwell on these in more detail in a later presentation. But this did mean that there was no additional cost to the endovascular strategy over the three year period. I'd also like to point out to you that

apart from the re-interventions, the need for renal support in the early days was 50 percent more common after open repair. Patients had rather different concerns about their complications to clinicians. And when we discussed this with patients they were most

concerned about limb amputation and possibly unclosed stomas. All of these were relatively uncommon, but we had a great collaboration with the other two ruptured aneurysm trials in Europe, AJAX and ECAR. And we put our data together.

Took 12 months, and here you can see the very consistent results. That amputations are considerably less common after endovascular repair for rupture than open repair. We've just heard about quality of life. In Improve Trial there were real gains in quality of life.

Up to three years in the endovascular strategy group. And since costs were lower, this meant that this strategy was highly cost-effective. So in summary, at three years an endovascular strategy proves to be better than open repair. With better survival, higher qualities for the patients

in the endovascular strategy group, marginally lower costs, and it's cost-effective. And we've heard quite a lot even at this meeting about our new NICE guidelines in the UK. But an endovascular strategy is actually being recommended by them for the repair of ruptures.

And I think the most cogent reasons to recommend endovascular repair are the fact that it has benefits for patients at all time points. It gives them what they want: Getting home quickly, better quality of life, lower rates of amputation and open stoma,

and better midterm survival. Thank you very much.

- Yeah, thank you very much. We all know that DCBs are kind of a workhorse right now for SFA-PA disease but when it comes, this has been proven randomized controlled studies, but when it comes to real world patients this might not have been included in the randomized conduit study and therefore

these registries are very available. And I present on this BIOLUX P-III study [Unintelligible] the standard versus the non-standard sub-group. This is just a quick overlook about the Passeo-18 Lux DCB it's an O-18 platform, has three micrograms

[Unintelligible] Paclitaxel on the balloon The excipient is a BTHC and this is an hydrophobic excipient and the sizes available are from two to seven millimeter in diameter and four 80 and 100 millimeter in length. This is the overlooks about the Passeo-18 Lux

they are out there, we have from phase one to phase three studies, randomized controlled and global registries. 1,600 patients including in this clinical program. With regard to the full cohort at 12 month we have now 878 patients available, you see with regard to the clinical characteristics

heavy smokers... a high percentage of smokers, high percentage of diabetes, more than 40% of CLI, 76% calcified lesions, the lesion length was around 9 centimeter and one-third of the patients had TASC C or D lesions. This is a higher payload stenting rate

this is not surprising with this complex cohort about 20% and with that the primary patency of the full cohort at 12 months is 84.3% and the freedom from clinical driven TLR is 93.5%. So this is the overlook of the full cohort at 12 months. With regard to the different subgroups you see

you have a consistent freedom from clinical driven TLR primary patency and freedom from major target limb amputation throughout all the subgroups. And I just now want to highlight the bail-out stented versus the DCB only group because this follows the concept of the so-called leave, at least leave less behind

as possible, this so-called spot-stenting concept. Out of this 878 patients we had 715 treated with a DCB only and in the bail-out stent group we had 163 patients. The patients in the bail-out stented group had a longer lesion length... 11 compared to 8 centimeters

in the DCB only group. With regard to all the others correctors there was no difference besides TASC C and D lesions there had been a higher percentage of TASC C and D lesions in the bail-out stented group than in the DCB only group.

We did the same vessel prep for both arms and with that we had the freedom from clinical driven TLR in the bail-out stented group of 92.8 compared to 92.2% in DCB only group. Primary patency was a little bit lower but freedom from a major adverse event

at 12 months was the same. When we bring this into context to other randomized, other real-world data out there freedom from clinical driven TLR in comparison to the In.Pact global stented group is the same as well as in the Lutonix global stented group.

With regard to freedom from major adverse event we can only refer to the In.Pact global stented group which is the same. So just let me conclude the Passeo-18 Biolux P-III study continues to show consistent, clinical performance of the Passeo-18 Lux Drug Coated Balloon

throughout all subgroups. There is no difference in clinical performance between DCB only versus payload stented even for the bail-out stented group had more complex lesions and the results of the Biolux P-III payload stenting subgroups are in line with the results

of current Global registries stented subgroups. Thank you very much.

- This is a little bit more detailed explanation of the pathophysiology behind Type IV AVM's. Medical disclosures are none. And this is the Yakes classification and this is Type IV lesion we are going to talk about now. So, this angioarchitecture has not been described before, and was first described in the Yakes classification.

What is so unique? It has multiple arteries, arterioles, but these arterioles form innumerable fistulas that are of a microsize, and they infiltrate the affected tissue. So, this is, this can affect every kind of tissue,

skin involvement and muscle involvement, and other than brain AVM, bleeding occurs if mucosa involvement is present or if an ulcer is present. So, we have to think about the definition of an AVM, which is an artery to vein connection

without an intervening capillary bed. But, what applies in Type IV? As you can see here, very nice example of this infiltrating type is that the tissue where the AVM is located is also viable, so the assumption is that

normal capillary beds are interspersed into these innumerable AVMs existing next to the malformed AVM fistulas, and this is a new definition of AVM. So, how to access this lesion? Of course, transarterial is possible

with a catheter or micro catheter. If anatomy doesn't allow transarterial approach, direct puncture is an option. Also, as you can see, in the direct puncture in the lower video, you can see the venus drainage of these fistulas,

and direct puncture of the vein compressed to reflux ethanol into the fistulas is also an approach. But, what is the challenge here? If you want to treat this lesion, you have to keep in mind

that you don't want to occlude the capillaries that are supplying the tissue. So, to find the right treatment approach, the physiologic concept is often important to understand that the arteriovenous fistulas drain into multiple veins and arterialize these veins

so we have a high pressure on this venus outflow site. The normal capillaries have a normal outflow too but this is of lower pressure, and this comes to competition between the arterialized veins and the normal venus outflow, which is, which is inferior to the normal capillary outflow.

So, what follows is a restriction of normal tissue flow with back-up to the capillaries, and backing up into the arterial inflow. So, we have the situation that the arterial venus fistulas have a lower pressure, lower resistance, and an increased arterial flow

compared to the normal capillaries, and this has to be taken into advantage for treatment. How can this be achieved? Thicken the fluid and dilute the ethanol by creating a mixture of 50/50 contrast and ethanol. So, this mixture will follow the preferential flow

into the arteriovenous fistulas in transarterial injections bearing the normal capillaries. So, if it's possible to puncture into the fistulas, pure ethanol can be used, but especially in transarterial access where normal nutrient vessels can be filled,

50:50 mixture contrast is the key to treat a Type IV AVM, Type IV Yates AVM, and here, you can see, using this approach, how this AVM can partly be treated in many several treatment sessions. And here you can see the clinical result. So, this huge ulcer, after seven treatments, healed

because of the less venus hypertension in the lesion. So the additional benefit of 50/50% ethanol contrast mixture is that your injection is visible on flouroscopy so you can see if which vessels you are including. You can react and adjust the pressure you're injecting. So, it also has to be considered

that the more you give diluted, the more total ethanol can be needed, but it's not efficient in larger vessels. This is also the advantage that you just treat the microfistulas. It's of importance that you use non-ionic contrast

as ionic contrast precipitates in the mixture. So here, you can see again, see the Type IV AVM of the arm and hand, which I already showed in my first talk, and here, you see the cured result after multiple sessions showing good arterial drum without fistulas remaining.

So, the conclusion is that Yakes Type IV is a new entity. It's crucial to understand the hemodynamics and the concept of 50/50 contrast ethanol mixture to treat this lesion with also a curative approach. Thank you very much.

- Good morning, thank you, Dr. Veith, for the invitation. My disclosures. So, renal artery anomalies, fairly rare. Renal ectopia and fusion, leading to horseshoe kidneys or pelvic kidneys, are fairly rare, in less than one percent of the population. Renal transplants, that is patients with existing

renal transplants who develop aneurysms, clearly these are patients who are 10 to 20 or more years beyond their initial transplantation, or maybe an increasing number of patients that are developing aneurysms and are treated. All of these involve a renal artery origin that is

near the aortic bifurcation or into the iliac arteries, making potential repair options limited. So this is a personal, clinical series, over an eight year span, when I was at the University of South Florida & Tampa, that's 18 patients, nine renal transplants, six congenital

pelvic kidneys, three horseshoe kidneys, with varied aorto-iliac aneurysmal pathologies, it leaves half of these patients have iliac artery pathologies on top of their aortic aneurysms, or in place of the making repair options fairly difficult. Over half of the patients had renal insufficiency

and renal protective maneuvers were used in all patients in this trial with those measures listed on the slide. All of these were elective cases, all were technically successful, with a fair amount of followup afterward. The reconstruction priorities or goals of the operation are to maintain blood flow to that atypical kidney,

except in circumstances where there were multiple renal arteries, and then a small accessory renal artery would be covered with a potential endovascular solution, and to exclude the aneurysms with adequate fixation lengths. So, in this experience, we were able, I was able to treat eight of the 18 patients with a fairly straightforward

endovascular solution, aorto-biiliac or aorto-aortic endografts. There were four patients all requiring open reconstructions without any obvious endovascular or hybrid options, but I'd like to focus on these hybrid options, several of these, an endohybrid approach using aorto-iliac

endografts, cross femoral bypass in some form of iliac embolization with an attempt to try to maintain flow to hypogastric arteries and maintain antegrade flow into that pelvic atypical renal artery, and a open hybrid approach where a renal artery can be transposed, and endografting a solution can be utilized.

The overall outcomes, fairly poor survival of these patients with a 50% survival at approximately two years, but there were no aortic related mortalities, all the renal artery reconstructions were patented last followup by Duplex or CT imaging. No aneurysms ruptures or aortic reinterventions or open

conversions were needed. So, focus specifically in a treatment algorithm, here in this complex group of patients, I think if the atypical renal artery comes off distal aorta, you have several treatment options. Most of these are going to be open, but if it is a small

accessory with multiple renal arteries, such as in certain cases of horseshoe kidneys, you may be able to get away with an endovascular approach with coverage of those small accessory arteries, an open hybrid approach which we utilized in a single case in the series with open transposition through a limited

incision from the distal aorta down to the distal iliac, and then actually a fenestrated endovascular repair of his complex aneurysm. Finally, an open approach, where direct aorto-ilio-femoral reconstruction with a bypass and reimplantation of that renal artery was done,

but in the patients with atypical renals off the iliac segment, I think you utilizing these endohybrid options can come up with some creative solutions, and utilize, if there is some common iliac occlusive disease or aneurysmal disease, you can maintain antegrade flow into these renal arteries from the pelvis

and utilize cross femoral bypass and contralateral occlusions. So, good options with AUIs, with an endohybrid approach in these difficult patients. Thank you.

- [Bill] Thank you Vikay. I think this is an interesting topic for many reasons but one of the key ones is that if you look at our health care policies by insurers, this tends to define our practice. So I looked at BlueCross BlueShield's policy and they say that treatment of the GSV or SSV

is medically necessary when there is demonstrated saphenous reflux and I looked for more and there was no more. That's all they said so they must think that reflux a time correlates with venous severity. So is this true?

I think, personally, that there are other things that are involved and that volume is really the key. Time, velocity and the diameter of the vein are likely all part of the process and we all know that obstruction

is also critically important as well and probably the worse patients are those that have both reflux and obstruction. Probably reflux is worse in the deep system but we know that large GSV and SSV patients can develop CEAP four to six symptoms

and do very well with saphenous ablations. And I think this is a nice analogy. I love this guy, it looks like he came off of his lawn chair to help the firefighters out but he's probably not going to do so much with his little garden hose now, is he?

So I think size and velocity do matter. What does the literature tell us? Chris Lattimer and his group have done an elegant set of studies looking at how various parameters correlate to air plethysmography and venous filling times. They did show that there is a correlation

between venous filling time and reflux time. However, other things were probably more correlated such as GSV diameter and reflux velocity. And in this nice study of 300 patients they found that there was a relatively weak correlation between reflux time and clinical severity

and their conclusion was that it was a good parameter to identify reflux but not for quantifying the severity. So here's how we use this clinically in my practice. So you see many patients such as this that have mixed venous disease.

53-year-old female, severe edema. You do her studies and she's got reflux in the deep and the superficial system. So how to we decide if saphenous ablation is going to help this patient or not and correct these symptoms, prevent further ulcerations?

So all reflux is not created equal. The top is a popliteal tracing where the maximum reflux velocity is about five centimeters per second versus the bottom one that's about thirty to forty centimeters per second

so these probably aren't going to behave similarly in when we look at them. So we studied this in 75 patients and reported this back in 2008. We look at the maximum reflux velocity in the popliteal vein to tell if these patients

would improve after we ablated their saphenous or not. We found that this was a significant predictor of both improvement in venous filling index and the venous clinical severity score so we think velocity really does matter. And this is where we're seeing this clinically.

This is a patient that was referred to me for a second opinion concerning whether she would need ablation of her great saphenous vein. And this is the reflux tracing and you can see the scale here is turned up so that this is a measurement of reflux at about two centimeters per second.

This was used to document abnormal reflux and to justify ablation of the saphenous. So I checked one of our tracings. This is what it looks like.

- I'm going to take it slightly beyond the standard role for the VBX and use it as we use it now for our fenestrated and branch and chimney grafts. These are my disclosures. You've seen these slides already, but the flexibility of VBX really does give us a significant ability to conform it

to the anatomies that we're dealing with. It's a very trackable stent. It doesn't, you don't have to worry about it coming off the balloon. Flexible as individual stents and in case in a PTFE so you can see it really articulates

between each of these rings of PTFE, or rings of stent and not connected together. I found I can use the smaller grafts, the six millimeter, for parallel grafts then flare them distally into my landing zone to customize it but keep the gutter relatively small

and decrease the instance of gutter leaks. So let's start with a presentation. I know we just had lunch so try and shake it up a little bit here. 72-year-old male that came in, history of a previous end-to-side aortobifemoral bypass graft

and then came in, had bilateral occluded external iliac arteries. I assume that's for the end-to-side anastomosis. I had a history of COPD, coronary artery disease, and peripheral arterial disease, and presented with a pseudoaneurysm

in the proximal juxtarenal graft anastomosis. Here you can see coming down the thing of most concern is both iliacs are occluded, slight kink in the aortofemoral bypass graft, but you see a common iliac coming down to the hypogastric, and that's really the only blood flow to the pelvis.

The aneurysm itself actually extended close to the renal, so we felt we needed to do a fenestrated graft. We came in with a fenestrated graft. Here's the renal vessels here, SMA. And then we actually came in from above in the brachial access and catheterized

the common iliac artery going down through the stenosis into the hypogastric artery. With that we then put a VBX stent graft in there which nicely deployed that, and you can see how we can customize the stent starting with a smaller stent here

and then flaring it more proximal as we move up through the vessel. With that we then came in and did our fenestrated graft. You can see fenestrations. We do use VBX for a good number of our fenestrated grafts and here you can see the tailoring.

You can see where a smaller artery, able to flare it at the level of the fenestration flare more for a good seal. Within the fenestration itself excellent flow to the left. We repeated the procedure on the right. Again, more customizable at the fenestration and going out to the smaller vessel.

And then we came down and actually extended down in a parallel graft down into that VBX to give us that parallel graft perfusion of the pelvis, and thereby we sealed the pseudoaneurysm and maintain tail perfusion of the pelvis and then through the aortofemoral limbs

to both of the common femoral arteries, and that resolved the pseudoaneurysm and maintained perfusion for us. We did a retrospective review of our data from August of 2014 through March of 2018. We had 183 patients who underwent endovascular repair

for a complex aneurysm, 106 which had branch grafts to the renals and the visceral vessels for 238 grafts. When we look at the breakdown here, of those 106, 38 patients' stents involved the use of VBX. This was only limited by the late release of the VBX graft.

And so we had 68 patients who were treated with non-VBX grafts. Their other demographics were very similar. We then look at the use, we were able to use some of the smaller VBXs, as I mentioned, because we can tailor it more distally

so you don't have to put a seven or eight millimeter parallel graft in, and with that we found that we had excellent results with that. Lower use of actual number of grafts, so we had, for VBX side we only had one graft

per vessel treated. If you look at the other grafts, they're anywhere between 1.2 and two grafts per vessel treated. We had similar mortality and followup was good with excellent graft patency for the VBX grafts.

As mentioned, technical success of 99%, mimicking the data that Dr. Metzger put forward to us. So in conclusion, I think VBX is a safe and a very versatile graft we can use for treating these complex aneurysms for perfusion of iliac vessels as well as visceral vessels

as we illustrated. And we use it for aortoiliac occlusive disease, branch and fenestrated grafts and parallel grafts. It's patency is equal to if not better than the similar grafts and has a greater flexibility for modeling and conforming to the existing anatomy.

Thank you very much for your attention.

- These are my disclosures. So central venous access is frequently employed throughout the world for a variety of purposes. These catheters range anywhere between seven and 11 French sheaths. And it's recognized, even in the best case scenario, that there are iatrogenic arterial injuries

that can occur, ranging between three to 5%. And even a smaller proportion of patients will present after complications from access with either a pseudoaneurysm, fistula formation, dissection, or distal embolization. In thinking about these, as you see these as consultations

on your service, our thoughts are to think about it in four primary things. Number one is the anatomic location, and I think imaging is very helpful. This is a vas cath in the carotid artery. The second is th

how long the device has been dwelling in the carotid or the subclavian circulation. Assessment for thrombus around the catheter, and then obviously the size of the hole and the size of the catheter.

Several years ago we undertook a retrospective review and looked at this, and we looked at all carotid, subclavian, and innominate iatrogenic injuries, and we excluded all the injuries that were treated, that were manifest early and treated with just manual compression.

It's a small cohort of patients, we had 12 cases. Eight were treated with a variety of endovascular techniques and four were treated with open surgery. So, to illustrate our approach, I thought what I would do is just show you four cases on how we treated some of these types of problems.

The first one is a 75 year-old gentleman who's three days status post a coronary bypass graft with a LIMA graft to his LAD. He had a cordis catheter in his chest on the left side, which was discovered to be in the left subclavian artery as opposed to the vein.

So this nine French sheath, this is the imaging showing where the entry site is, just underneath the clavicle. You can see the vertebral and the IMA are both patent. And this is an angiogram from a catheter with which was placed in the femoral artery at the time that we were going to take care of this

with a four French catheter. For this case, we had duel access, so we had access from the groin with a sheath and a wire in place in case we needed to treat this from below. Then from above, we rewired the cordis catheter,

placed a suture-mediated closure device, sutured it down, left the wire in place, and shot this angiogram, which you can see very clearly has now taken care of the bleeding site. There's some pinching here after the wire was removed,

this abated without any difficulty. Second case is a 26 year-old woman with a diagnosis of vascular EDS. She presented to the operating room for a small bowel obstruction. Anesthesia has tried to attempt to put a central venous

catheter access in there. There unfortunately was an injury to the right subclavian vein. After she recovered from her operation, on cross sectional imaging you can see that she has this large pseudoaneurysm

coming from the subclavian artery on this axial cut and also on the sagittal view. Because she's a vascular EDS patient, we did this open brachial approach. We placed a stent graft across the area of injury to exclude the aneurism.

And you can see that there's still some filling in this region here. And it appeared to be coming from the internal mammary artery. We gave her a few days, it still was patent. Cross-sectional imaging confirmed this,

and so this was eventually treated with thoracoscopic clipping and resolved flow into the aneurism. The next case is a little bit more complicated. This is an 80 year-old woman with polycythemia vera who had a plasmapheresis catheter,

nine French sheath placed on the left subclavian artery which was diagnosed five days post procedure when she presented with a posterior circulation stroke. As you can see on the imaging, her vertebral's open, her mammary's open, she has this catheter in the significant clot

in this region. To manage this, again, we did duel access. So right femoral approach, left brachial approach. We placed the filter element in the vertebral artery. Balloon occlusion of the subclavian, and then a stent graft coverage of the area

and took the plasmapheresis catheter out and then suction embolectomy. And then the last case is a 47 year-old woman who had an attempted right subclavian vein access and it was known that she had a pulsatile mass in the supraclavicular fossa.

Was noted to have a 3cm subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm. Very broad base, short neck, and we elected to treat this with open surgical technique. So I think as you see these consults, the things to factor in to your management decision are: number one, the location.

Number two, the complication of whether it's thrombus, pseudoaneurysm, or fistula. It's very important to identify whether there is pericatheter thrombus. There's a variety of techniques available for treatment, ranging from manual compression,

endovascular techniques, and open repair. I think the primary point here is the prevention with ultrasound guidance is very important when placing these catheters. Thank you. (clapping)

- Pleasure to be here again this year, discussing now something very exciting that we're going to be a part of at Baylor. Some disclosures, of which probably the fact that I educate and train for Boston may be relevant to this topic. Quick picture showing some of my own patients

that had chronic limb threatening ischemia over a year ago and just recently we had to do an angio again for some more proximal disease. And obviously not a surprise but at one year after drug alluding stenting, obviously balloon expandable stenting, the patency, actually it was more than that,

13, 14 months, it was fantastically open. On another terrible case, I had a patient that had a failed distal bypass and that one area of occlusion was the area where the bypass was amassed the most. Unfortunately after atherectomy, after balloon angioplasty

there was still acute recoil and I had to stent that area. I had to take the patient back a few months later for assisted primary patency and that stent had just become a mesh of useless metal and that's because that mobility at that proportion of the tibials is a lot.

So there's a lot to be said about the utilization of a non crushable scaffold in this segment. Tibial disease as is no secret to any of us is very diffuse, specifically in diabetics. And can be seen in a multitude of studies that there is an advantage of a scaffold

that has biological effect. Now granted most of these lesions have been very small and very short because of the availability of the structures and also because of what we've learned about the anatomy of the tibial and the areas of the tibials we've learned that not every single

part of the tibial vessels are actually amenable to a balloon expandable scaffold. Drug coated balloons have tried to expand the indication with some variable results as you look at the entirety of the studies out there. Now looking at what the patency has shown,

restenosis and freedom from TLR, it's been very obvious that those cases that have been scaffolded at 12 months have actually done very good, obviously the criticism and the constraint has always been lesion length. Smaller lesions have responded really well.

Now what would happen after that first year, we know from the PADI stud at 5 years is that when compared to PTA and bare meta stenting there is a very clear advantage that is maintained up to five years by using biological affects. So the SAVAL pivotal trial is a global pivotal trial

of a drug eluting system called the SAVAL stent. It's the first time that the differentiated technology selected for expedited access pathway has been awarded by the FDA and the anticipated enrollment us going to be Q3 2018, the idea of this flexible Nitinol self expanding stent is that it's going to be

compliant to most of the anatomy of the tibials. This is a polymer drug coating based scaffold. Somewhat in accordance or at least the same one that has been used previously for the Aluvia, that has been recently approved. This study is randomized, comparing DES below the knee

to percutaneous angioplasty alone below the knee. Doctor Mustapha is the global PI and Patrick Geraghty, Hans Overhagen and Masato Nakamura are going to be the co PIs for the global perspective as it will be conducted in Japan, in EU and in the United States.

There will be a perspective phase for this, so a two to one study with a limited size of 80 millimeter in length scaffold and then a phase B where they will allow us to put more than one scaffold, allowing longer lesions to be treated.

The objective is to get 200 patients, randomize again to two to one in 50 centers and we're looking for obviously CLTI patients Rutherford's class four and five, greater than 70 percent stenosis. Reference vessel diameter is going to be two five to

three 75 and total target lesion length is going to be initially less than 70 for coverage with one scaffold and then after that it's going to be freed up to hopefully less than 140 lesions. Primary patency at six months, it's going to be a superiority versus the PTA branch.

Certainly a major adverse events are going to be defined by above the ankle amputation, major reintervention and mortality. So the key features, primary patency measured at one, six, 12, 24 and 36 months. TLRs are going to be also seen.

Hemodynamic outcomes will be managed and assessed. Wound assessment will be also closely followed. Major amputation rate, Rutherford classification, quality of life and hospital readmissions. So in conclusions CLTIs associated with high amputation rates and poor clinical outcomes.

CLTI is commonly associated with below the knee lesions and challenging anatomy. Endovascular treatment has potential to increase wound healing and reduce amputation rates and the SAVAL clinical study will investigate safety and efficacy of a self expanding

drug eluting stent design particularly for the below the knee vessels, thank you very much.

- [Narrator] So my assignment is, CMS policy update on non-thermal ablation techniques, and as most of you know, there is not one National CMS policy, so there are a variety of local cover determinations or policies that we're going to look at. I may bore you for a couple minutes

but I found a surprise at the end. So I went to the website, CMS website, and looked up varicose vein LCDs and these seven came up, interestingly Novitas, everybody's favorite, didn't come. So I looked at separately, we're going to look at all these as well.

And here is Novitas, Novitas and their previous LCD had no mention of non-thermal techniques, but in this proposed LCD, which has a lot of people up in arms, they say that the non-thermal techniques are experimental, investigational, and unproven,

and therefore will not be covered. This is next LCDs, this is two from Medicare contractor Noridian, they go on to talk about sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy, but they are not going to cover it. And somewhat bizarrely these codes in red here,

which are for Venaseal and Verithena, are listed as indications for RF or laser ablation, which kind of shows you they don't know what they're talking about. And there is no mention of MOCA or Claravein. Wisconsin Physicians Services and other MAC contractor,

and I looked at their LCD, there is no mention of non-thermal techniques. Next up is First Coast Service Options, with these jurisdictions over here on the right. And they get down to the C-classification, VCSS score, and talk about compressive therapy and conservative therapy.

They do mention Clarivein or MOCA. However, they state that it does not meet the Medicare necessity for coverage, and so they won't. And there's absolutely no mention of Verithena or Venaseal in their LCD. Palmetto GBA is another contractor,

with these jurisdictions on the right, and they actually discuss and approve Varithena, microfoam sclerotherapy. They discuss it here in their LCD, they have some restrictions that the physician needs to be competent and experienced with Varithena,

and ultrasound, there is no mention of Clarivein or Venaseal in their LCD. And these are also the folks that tell us how to do stab phlebectomy with 2 mm incisions and a crochet hook. So don't use a 3 mm incision and a hemostat,

it'd probably get denied. Next is CGS Administrators, and this busy slide, they go on to talk about sclerotherapy quite a bit, and all these in the main body, what they are not going to cover for sclerotherapy. They mention that foam sclerotherapy

is basically the same as liquid sclerotherapy, and therefore will not cover it, and again no mention of other treatments of non-thermal techniques. Which brings us to the last LCD, which is National Government Services,

and amazingly they state that the accepted treatments for eliminating reflux and the great saphenous anterior accessory, and small saphenous vein, include RFA, laser, polidocanol, Venaseal, and Verithena. And even more interestingly, they use their Rationale for Determination for MOCA.

The amount and consistency of the data, in addition to the two recent systematic reviews and the strong recommendation of the American Venous Forum, have convinced NGS that Medicare coverage is met. And for PEM, Varithena, the combination of RCTs, meta-analyses, systematic reviews,

the strong recommendation of the AVF, and endorsements from the SVS, ACP, SCAI, and SIR, have convinced them that coverage is appropriate. And the same for Venaseal, same thing. This is craziness. On one Medicare hand,

you have Novitas saying that, treatment is experimental and unproven, and they won't cover it. And on the other Medicare hand, you have this contractor that says, based on the recommendations of the experts,

that it's appropriate, and will be covered. And this is the reason why we need a National Coverage Determination. So, to find out what your policy is, you have to go to the website, you have to find out who your provider is,

or contractor, and see what the policy cause it differs depending upon where you are. Thank you for your attention.

- So I'm going to be talking about allografts for peripheral graft infections. This is a femoral artery that's been replaced after a closure device infection and complication, and we've bypassed to the SFA and profunda femoris. These are my disclosures. So peripheral arterial infectious processes,

well the etiology either is primary or secondary. Primary can be from bacteremic states and seeding of ulcerated plaque or thrombus. Secondary reasons for infections can be the vast usage of percutaneous closure devices that really have flooded the market these days.

Prosthetic graft infections after either a bypass or patch in the femoral artery. So early onset infections usually are from break in sterility. Secondary infections can be from either wound breakdowns or late seeding of the prosthetic graft.

The presentation for these patients can be relatively minor such as cellulitis or draining sinus, or much more dramatic, such as sepsis or pseudoaneurysm or mycotic aneurysm. On the CT scan we can see infected mycotic aneurysm after infected closure device and bleeding complications.

The treatment is broad in range. Ligation is obviously one option, but it leads to a very high risk of major limb amputation. So ideally some form of reconstruction, either extra-anatomic through clean planes,

antibiotic graft as we heard from the previous speaker, the use of autologous replacement with deep vein, or we become big proponents of the use of cryopreserved arterial allografts for reconstruction. And much of this stems from our work from about 10 years ago, where we looked

at the use of aortic cryopreserved grafts for aortic graft infections. This was published about 10 years ago but we looked at a small series of patients with aortic infections. You can see the CT scan of an infected stent graft

and associated aneurysm. And then the intraoperative photo after we've resected the stent graft and replaced that segment of the aorta with a cryopreserved aortic segment. So using that as a springboard,

we then decided to look at the outcomes using these types of conduits, arterial conduits, for peripheral arterial reconstructions in contaminated or infected surgical fields. So retrospective review at our tertiary care center, we looked at roughly 60 patients over a 15-year period

and excluded any aortic-based reconstructions. So these are all peripheral reconstructions. Mean follow-up was 28 months. As you would expect, the distribution of treatment zones were primarily in the lower extremities, so 51 cases.

As you can see, there's a list of all the different types of cases that we treated. But then there were a few upper extremity visceral and then carotid. I've shown this slide before at this meeting in the past, with a carotid patch infection

that was treated after it had a blow-out, and it's obviously a infected aneurysm, and this was treated with resection and a cryopreserved arterial segment. Looking at our outcomes, the 30-day outcome showed a mortality rate of 9%.

The 30-day conduit-related complication rate was surprisingly low at 14%. We had four patients that had bleeding complications, four patients with recurrent infectious complications. All eight of those patients required a return back to the operating room for correction.

The late conduit-related complication rate was only 16%. As listed here, you can see there's only one case of reinfection, three cases of graft thrombosis, surprisingly only one major limb amputation, two pseudoaneurysms and one late bleeding complication.

And graphically depicted, you can see here, this area here is looking at the less than 30 days, this is primarily when the complications occur. When you get to six months, fewer complications, and then beyond six months, the primary complications that we would see are either thrombosis of the graft

or the development of late pseudoaneurysms, again relatively low. So in summary, I think peripheral arterial infectious complications can be treated with a cryopreserved arterial allografts. The advantage is it's a single stage operation,

maintains in-line flow, there's a low incidence of repeat infection. I think it's also important to mention that the majority of these patients had adjunctive muscle flap coverage to cover the large soft tissue defect

at the time of the operation. So I think that this is a valuable alternative conduit in a setting of peripheral arterial infections. Thank you.

Thanks very much, Tom. I'll be talking about thermal ablation on anticoagula is it safe and effective? I have no disclosures. As we know, extensive review of both RF and laser

ablation procedures have demonstrated excellent treatment effectiveness and durability in each modality, but there is less data regarding treatment effectiveness and durability for those procedures in patients who are also on systemic anticoagulation. As we know, there's multiple studies have been done

over the past 10 years, with which we're all most familiar showing a percent of the durable ablation, both modalities from 87% to 95% at two to five years. There's less data on those on the anticoagulation undergoing thermal ablation.

The largest study with any long-term follow up was by Sharifi in 2011, and that was 88 patients and follow-up at one year. Both RF and the EVLA had 100% durable ablation with minimal bleeding complications. The other studies were all smaller groups

or for very much shorter follow-up. In 2017, a very large study came out, looking at the EVLA and RF using 375 subjects undergoing with anticoagulation. But it was only a 30-day follow-up, but it did show a 30% durable ablation

at that short time interval. Our objective was to evaluate efficacy, durability, and safety of RF and EVLA, the GSV and the SSV to treat symptomatic reflux in patients on therapeutic anticoagulation, and this group is with warfarin.

The data was collected from NYU, single-center. Patients who had undergone RF or laser ablation between 2011 and 2013. Ninety-two vessels of patients on warfarin at the time of endothermal ablation were selected for study. That's the largest to date with some long-term follow-up.

And this group was compared to a matched group of 124 control patients. Devices used were the ClosureFast catheter and the NeverTouch kits by Angiodynamics. Technical details, standard IFU for the catheters. Tumescent anesthetic.

And fiber tips were kept about 2.5 centimeters from the SFJ or the SPJ. Vein occlusion was defined as the absence of blood flow by duplex scan along the length of the treated vein. You're all familiar with the devices, so the methods included follow-up, duplex ultrasound

at one week post-procedure, and then six months, and then also at a year. And then annually. Outcomes were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests. The results of the anticoagulation patients, 92,

control, 124, the mean follow-up was 470 days. And you can see that the demographics were rather similar between the two groups. There was some more coronary disease and hypertension in the anticoagulated groups, and that's really not much of a surprise

and some more male patients. Vessels treated, primarily GSV. A smaller amount of SSV in both the anticoagulated and the control groups. Indications for anticoagulation.

About half of the patients were in atrial fibrillation. Another 30% had a remote DVT in the contralateral limb. About 8% had mechanical valves, and 11% were for other reasons. And the results. The persistent vein ablation at 12 months,

the anticoagulation patients was 97%, and the controls was 99%. Persistent vein ablation by treated vessel, on anticoagulation. Didn't matter if it was GSV or SSV. Both had persistent ablation,

and by treatment modality, also did not matter whether it was laser or RF. Both equivalent. If there was antiplatelet therapy in addition to the anticoagulation, again if you added aspirin or Clopidogrel,

also no change. And that was at 12 months. We looked then at persistent vein ablation out at 18 months. It was still at 95% for the controls, and 91% for the anticoagulated patients. Still not statistically significantly different.

At 24 months, 89% in both groups. Although the numbers were smaller at 36 months, there was actually still no statistically significant difference. Interestingly, the anticoagulated group actually had a better persistent closure rate

than the control group. That may just be because the patients that come back at 36 months who didn't have anticoagulation may have been skewed. The ones we actually saw were ones that had a problem. It gets harder to have patients

come back at three months who haven't had an uneventful venous ablation procedure. Complication, no significant hematomas. Three patients had DVTs within 30 days. One anticoagulation patient had a popliteal DVT, and one control patient.

And one control patient had a calf vein DVT. Two EHITs. One GSV treated with laser on anticoagulation noted at six days, and one not on anticoagulation at seven days. Endovenous RF and EVLA can be safely performed

in patients undergoing long-term warfarin therapy. Our experience has demonstrated a similar short- and mid-term durability for RF ablation and laser, and platelet therapy does not appear to impact the closer rates,

which is consistent with the prior studies. And the frequency of vein recanalization following venous ablation procedures while on ACs is not worse compared to controls, and to the expected incidence as described in the literature.

This is the largest study to date with follow-up beyond 30 days with thermal ablation procedures on anticoagulation patients. We continue to look at these patients for even longer term durability. Thanks very much for your attention.

- Thank you very much for the privilege of participating in this iconic symposium. I have no disclosures pertinent to this presentation. The Atelier percutaneous endovascular repair for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is a natural evolution of procedural technique due to the success of fully percutaneous endovascular

aortic aneurysm repair in elective cases. This past year, we had the opportunity to publish our data with regard to 30 day outcomes between percutaneous ruptured aneurysm repairs and surgical cutdown repairs utilizing the American College of Surgeons NSQIP database,

which is a targeted database which enrolls about 800 hospitals in the United States, looking at both the univariate and multivariate analyses comparing preoperative demographics, operative-specific variables and postoperative outcomes. There were 502 patients who underwent

ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms that were included in this review, 129 that underwent percutaneous repair, whereas 373 underwent cutdown repair. As you can see, the majority were still being done by cutdown.

Over the four years, however, there was a gradual increase in the number of patients that were having percutaneous repair used as their primary modality of access, and in fact a more recent stasis has shown to increase up to 50%,

and there certainly was a learning curve during this period of time. Looking at the baseline characteristics of patients with ruptured aneurysms undergoing both modalities, there was not statistically significant difference

with regard to these baseline characteristics. Likewise, with size of the aneurysms, both were of equal sizes. There was no differences with regard to rupture having hypotension, proximal or distal extension of the aneurysms.

What is interesting, however, that the patients that underwent percutaneous repair tended to have regional anesthesia as their anesthesia of choice, rather than that of having a general. Also there was for some unexplained reason

a more significant conversion to open procedures in the percutaneous group as compared to the cutdown group. Looking at adjusted 30-day outcomes for ruptured endovascular aneurysm repairs, when looking at the 30-day mortality,

the operative time, wound complications, hospital length of stay, that was not statistically significant. However, over that four year period of time, there tended to be decreased hospital length of stay as well as decreased wound complications

over four years. So the summary of this study shows that there was an increased use of fully percutaneous access for endovascular repairs for ruptured aneurysms with noninferiority compared to traditional open femoral cutdown approaches.

There is a trending advantage over conventional surgical exposure with decreased access-related complications, as well as decreased hospital length of stay. Now, I'm going to go through some of the technical tips, and this is really going to be focused upon

the trainees in the room, and also perhaps those clinicians who do not do percutaneous access at this time. What's important, I find, is that the utility of duplex ultrasonography, and this is critical to delineate the common

femoral artery access anatomy. And what's important to find is the common femoral artery between the inguinal ligament and this bifurcation to the profunda femoral and superficial femoral arteries. So this is your target area. Once this target area is found,

especially in those patients presenting with ruptured aneurysm, local anesthesia is preferred over general anesthesia with permissive hypotension. This is a critical point that once you use ultrasound, that you'd want to orient your probe to be

90 degrees to the target area and measure the distance between the skin and the top of that artery. Now if you hold that needle at equidistance to that same distance between the skin and the artery and angle that needle at 45 degrees,

this will then allow you to have the proper trajectory to hit the target absolutely where you're imaging the vessel, and this becomes important so you're not off site. Once micropuncture technique is used, it's always a good idea just to use

a quick fluoroscopic imaging to show that your access is actually where you want it to be. If it's not, you can always re-stick the patient again. Once you have the access in place, what can then happen is do a quick angio to show in fact you have reached the target vessel.

This is the routine instructions for use by placing the percutaneous suture-mediated closure system at 45 degree angles from one another, 90 degrees from one another. Once the sheath is in place for ruptured aneurysm, the placement of a ballon occlusion

can be done utilizing a long, at least 12 French sheath so that they'll keep that balloon up in place. What's also good is to keep a neat operative field, and by doing so, you can keep all of these wires and sutures clean and out of the way and also color code the sutures so that you have

ease and ability to close them later. Finally, it's important to replace the dilator back in the sheath prior to having it removed. This is important just so that if there are problems with your percutaneous closure, you can always very quickly replace your sheath back in.

Again, we tend to color code the sutures so we can know which ones go with which. You can also place yet a third percutaneous access closure device if need be by keeping the guide wire in place. One other little trick that I actually learned

from Ben Starnes when visiting his facility is to utilize a Rumel mediated technique by placing a short piece of IV tubing cut length, running the suture through that, and using it like a Rumel, and that frees up your hand as you're closing up

the other side and final with closure. The contraindications to pREVAR. And I just want to conclude that there's increased use of fully percutaneous access for endovascular repair. There's trending advantages over conventional surgical exposure with decreased

access related complications, and improved outcomes can be attributed to increased user experience and comfort with percutaneous access, and this appears to be a viable first option. Thank you very much.

- Thank you Tim, Manny, Dr. Veith. Again thank you for the kind invitation. Um, here are my disclosures. The Chimney Snorkel Sandwich technique is really one that's been used and discussed many times throughout this great meeting in years past.

I've been asked to kind of see how we expand the use for thoracoabdominal aneurysms. Um, basically it's a matter of putting a parallel graft and then having an inner graft that will help seal the aneurysm sac itself by maintaining

perfusion to the visceral vessels. Um, the number of parallel grafts has been shown to be of note, and generally if you get beyond two parallel grafts at any one location, that tends to dramatically increase the incidence of

gutter leaks and potential for continued perfusion of the aneurysm sac. Here again showing at two, they still keep a reasonable aortic diameter, but once you start going three and four parallel grafts you tend to have significant compression

of the main aortic graft itself, as well as the potential for gutter leaks. Um, the PERICLES Registry certainly looked as I know has been discussed earlier in this meeting, and basically what it showed was that this was a reasonable way of treating

some of these complex aneurysms with a durable outcome going out to two to three years, uh, at a survival rate of over 70 percent. So, to show how we use this for patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysms, this was a 67 year, I use the term is,

a 67-year-old gentleman presented urgently with a sudden onset of back and abdominal pain. Apparently he was, uh, had a new wife and was trying some sexually enhancing medications from the DR. Had a history of coronary artery disease,

erectile dysfunction, and congestive heart failure, and CT scan revealed a type four thoracoabdominal dissection with a eight centimeter juxtarenal aneurysm, and he was in acute pain. Uh, here is the CT scan as we go through,

and you can see obviously the very complex dissection. You had a small segment of perfusion still around the level of the celiac going down into the SMA, uh, and then this rather, again the renals were

also with a small luminal area, and then a large aneurysm going up to eight centimeters going down into the abdominal component, and then reasonable access vessels from below. This shows the dissection extending down

through the thoracoabdominal segment, and again, he was in acute pain. Uh, so we came in and did an angiogram and IVUS, uh, and here we show the area of the dissection going down as well as the take-off of the subclavian artery.

Again, the true lumen being here. This was confirmed with IVUS. The IVUS sash, and this is the true lumen here, the false lumen being around the periphery, and as you go through you can see there's almost complete collapse of that

true lumen throughout the cardiac cycle. Uh, we performed a left carotid subclavian bypass, and embolized the left subclavian artery and put a thoracic endograft in, covering that lead point as you go in and taking it really almost up to the level of the left carotid artery.

There you can see the occluded subclavian. Uh, with that in place we then prepared to do a four vessel sandwich, or double sandwich, technique. Here we came down, we brought the grafts down to about the level of the takeoff of the celiac access with thoracic endografts.

Lateral shows the takeoff of the celiac and the SMA. Uh, we were able to catheterize both those vessels from the axillary region and put stents going out in this two sandwich technique, uh, and then actually put our stents going out from both the celiac and SMA.

We then were able to do that once we had those stents in place with adequate overlap and no real gutter leak, we then came down and similarly put another graft down to the takeoff of the renal vessels and then selectively catheterized

the right and left renal. Here you can see the stenosis near the origin of the right renal artery. With that we then performed balloon angioplasty with covered stents, I believe these were VBX stents going out,

and then covered that further down as we went down into the area of the eight centimeter aneurysm. And here we come in building down from that area and the perivisceral segment down and then to the iliacs showing good perfusion down to the takeoff of the

hypogastric, and then finally angiogram showed we had good perfusion to celiac, SMA, both renal vessels, and then down through the aneurysm sac itself. This is, uh, he remains stable. His postoperative course actually was uneventful.

He was discharged from the hospital at day four. He's been seen back now at one year follow up at six and 12 month follow up and he's remained stable with no evidence of endo-leak. So I appreciate the opportunity to try and present a more novel way of managing

these patients in the acute setting. Thank you very much.

- Relevant disclosures are shown in this slide. So when we treat patients with Multi-Segment Disease, the more segments that are involved, the more complex the outcomes that we should expect, with regards to the patient comorbidities and the complexity of the operation. And this is made even more complex

when we add aortic dissection to the patient population. We know that a large proportion of patients who undergo Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair, require planned coverage of the left subclavian artery. And this also been demonstrated that it's an increase risk for stroke, spinal cord ischemia and other complications.

What are the options when we have to cover the left subclavian artery? Well we can just cover the artery, we no that. That's commonly performed in emergency situations. The current standard is to bypass or transpose the artery. Or provide a totally endovascular revascularization option

with some off-label use , such as In Situ or In Vitro Fenestration, Parallel Grafting or hopefully soon we will see and will have available branched graft devices. These devices are currently investigational and the focus today's talk will be this one,

the Valiant Mona Lisa Stent Graft System. Currently the main body device is available in diameters between thirty and forty-six millimeters and they are all fifteen centimeters long. The device is designed with flexible cuff, which mimics what we call the "volcano" on the main body.

It's a pivotal connection. And it's a two wire pre-loaded system with a main system wire and a wire through the left subclavian artery branch. And this has predominately been delivered with a through and through wire of

that left subclavian branch. The system is based on the valiant device with tip capture. The left subclavian artery branch is also unique to this system. It's a nitinol helical stent, with polyester fabric. It has a proximal flare,

which allows fixation in that volcano cone. Comes in three diameters and they're all the same length, forty millimeters, with a fifteen french profile. The delivery system, which is delivered from the groin, same access point as the main body device. We did complete the early feasibility study

with nine subjects at three sites. The goals were to validate the procedure, assess safety, and collect imaging data. We did publish that a couple of years ago. Here's a case demonstration. This was a sixty-nine year old female

with a descending thoracic aneurysm at five and a half centimeters. The patient's anatomy met the criteria. We selected a thirty-four millimeter diameter device, with a twelve millimeter branch. And we chose to extend this repair down to the celiac artery

in this patient. The pre-operative CT scan looks like this. The aneurysm looks bigger with thrombus in it of course, but that was the device we got around the corner of that arch to get our seal. Access is obtained both from the groin

and from the arm as is common with many TEVAR procedures. Here we have the device up in the aorta. There's our access from the arm. We had a separate puncture for a "pigtail". Once the device is in position, we "snare" the wire, we confirm that we don't have

any "wire wrap". You can see we went into a areal position to doubly confirm that. And then the device is expanded, and as it's on sheath, it does creep forward a bit. And we have capture with that through and through wire

and tension on that through and through wire, while we expand the rest of the device. And you can see that the volcano is aligned right underneath the left subclavian artery. There's markers there where there's two rings, the outer and the inner ring of that volcano.

Once the device is deployed with that through and through wire access, we deliver the branch into the left subclavian artery. This is a slow deployment, so that we align the flair within the volcano and that volcano is flexible. In some patients, it sort of sits right at the level of

the aorta, like you see in this patient. Sometimes it protrudes. It doesn't really matter, as long as the two things are mated together. There is some flexibility built in the system. In this particular patient,

we had a little leak, so we were able to balloon this as we would any others. For a TEVAR, we just balloon both devices at the same time. Completion Angiogram shown here and we had an excellent result with this patient at six months and at a year the aneurysm continued

to re-sorb. In that series, we had successful delivery and deployment of all the devices. The duration of the procedure has improved with time. Several of these patients required an extension. We are in the feasibility phase.

We've added additional centers and we continue to enroll patients. And one of the things that we've learned is that details about the association between branches and the disease are critical. And patient selection is critical.

And we will continue to complete enrollment for the feasibility and hopefully we will see the pivotal studies start soon. Thank you very much

- Thank you Mr. Chairman. Ladies and gentleman, first of all, I would like to thank Dr. Veith for the honor of the podium. Fenestrated and branched stent graft are becoming a widespread use in the treatment of thoracoabdominal

and pararenal aortic aneurysms. Nevertheless, the risk of reinterventions during the follow-up of these procedures is not negligible. The Mayo Clinic group has recently proposed this classification for endoleaks

after FEVAR and BEVAR, that takes into account all the potential sources of aneurysm sac reperfusion after stent graft implant. If we look at the published data, the reported reintervention rate ranges between three and 25% of cases.

So this is still an open issue. We started our experience with fenestrated and branched stent grafts in January 2016, with 29 patients treated so far, for thoracoabdominal and pararenal/juxtarenal aortic aneurysms. We report an elective mortality rate of 7.7%.

That is significantly higher in urgent settings. We had two cases of transient paraparesis and both of them recovered, and two cases of complete paraplegia after urgent procedures, and both of them died. This is the surveillance protocol we applied

to the 25 patients that survived the first operation. As you can see here, we used to do a CT scan prior to discharge, and then again at three and 12 months after the intervention, and yearly thereafter, and according to our experience

there is no room for ultrasound examination in the follow-up of these procedures. We report five reinterventions according for 20% of cases. All of them were due to endoleaks and were fixed with bridging stent relining,

or embolization in case of type II, with no complications, no mortality. I'm going to show you a couple of cases from our series. A 66 years old man, a very complex surgical history. In 2005 he underwent open repair of descending thoracic aneurysm.

In 2009, a surgical debranching of visceral vessels followed by TEVAR for a type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. In 2016, the implant of a tube fenestrated stent-graft to fix a distal type I endoleak. And two years later the patient was readmitted

for a type II endoleak with aneurysm growth of more than one centimeter. This is the preoperative CT scan, and you see now the type II endoleak that comes from a left gastric artery that independently arises from the aneurysm sac.

This is the endoleak route that starts from a branch of the hepatic artery with retrograde flow into the left gastric artery, and then into the aneurysm sac. We approached this case from below through the fenestration for the SMA and the celiac trunk,

and here on the left side you see the superselective catheterization of the branch of the hepatic artery, and on the right side the microcatheter that has reached the nidus of the endoleak. We then embolized with onyx the endoleak

and the feeding vessel, and this is the nice final result in two different angiographic projections. Another case, a 76 years old man. In 2008, open repair for a AAA and right common iliac aneurysm.

Eight years later, the implant of a T-branch stent graft for a recurrent type IV thoracoabdominal aneurysm. And one year later, the patient was admitted again for a type IIIc endoleak, plus aneurysm of the left common iliac artery. This is the CT scan of this patient.

You will see here the endoleak at the level of the left renal branch here, and the aneurysm of the left common iliac just below the stent graft. We first treated the iliac aneurysm implanting an iliac branched device on the left side,

so preserving the left hypogastric artery. And in the same operation, from a bowl, we catheterized the left renal branch and fixed the endoleak that you see on the left side, with a total stent relining, with a nice final result on the right side.

And this is the CT scan follow-up one year after the reintervention. No endoleak at the level of the left renal branch, and nice exclusion of the left common iliac aneurysm. In conclusion, ladies and gentlemen, the risk of type I endoleak after FEVAR and BEVAR

is very low when the repair is planning with an adequate proximal sealing zone as we heard before from Professor Verhoeven. Much of reinterventions are due to type II and III endoleaks that can be treated by embolization or stent reinforcement. Last, but not least, the strict follow-up program

with CT scan is of paramount importance after these procedures. I thank you very much for your attention.

- This talk is a brief one about what I think is an entity that we need to be aware of because we see some. They're not AVMs obviously, they're acquired, but it nevertheless represents an entity which we've seen. We know the transvenous treatment of AVMs is a major advance in safety and efficacy.

And we know that the venous approach is indeed very, very favorable. This talk relates to some lesions, which we are successful in treating as a venous approach, but ultimately proved to be,

as I will show you in considerable experience now, I think that venous thrombosis and venous inflammatory disease result in acquired arteriovenous connections, we call them AVMs, but they're not. This patient, for example,

presented with extensive lower extremity swelling after an episode of DVT. And you can see the shunting there in the left lower extremity. Here we go in a later arterial phase. This lesion we found,

as others, is best treated. By the way, that was his original episode of DVT with occlusion. Was treated with stenting and restoration of flow and the elimination of the AVM.

So, compression of the lesion in the venous wall, which is actually interesting because in the type perivenous predominant lesions, those are actually lesions in the vein wall. So these in a form, or in a way, assimilate the AVMs that occur in the venous wall.

Another man, a 53-year-old gentleman with leg swelling after an episode of DVT, we can see the extensive filling via these collaterals, and these are inflammatory collaterals in the vein wall. This is another man with a prior episode of DVT. See his extensive anterior pelvic collaterals,

and he was treated with stenting and success. A recent case, that Dr. Resnick and I had, I was called with a gentleman said he had an AVM. And we can see that the arteriogram sent to me showed arterial venous shunting.

Well, what was interesting here was that the history had not been obtained of a prior total knee replacement. And he gave a very clear an unequivocal history of a DVT of sudden onset. And you can see the collaterals there

in the adjacent femoral popliteal vein. And there it is filling. So treatment here was venous stenting of the lesion and of the underlying stenosis. We tried an episode of angioplasty,

but ultimately successful. Swelling went down and so what you have is really a post-inflammatory DVT. Our other vast experience, I would say, are the so-called uterine AVMs. These are referred to as AVMs,

but these are clearly understood to be acquired, related to placental persistence and the connections between artery and veins in the uterus, which occurs, a part of normal pregnancy. These are best treated either with arterial embolization, which has been less successful,

but in some cases, with venous injection in venous thrombosis with coils or alcohol. There's a subset I believe of some of our pelvic AVMs, that have histories of DVT. I believe they're silent. I think the consistency of this lesion

that I'm showing you here, that if we all know, can be treated by coil embolization indicates to me that at least some, especially in patients in advanced stage are related to DVT. This is a 56-year-old, who had a known history of prostate cancer

and post-operative DVT and a very classic looking AVM, which we then treated with coil embolization. And we're able to cure, but no question in my mind at least based on the history and on the age, that this was post-phlebitic.

And I think some of these, and I think Wayne would agree with me, some of these are probably silent internal iliac venous thromboses, which we know can occur, which we know can produce pulmonary embolism.

And that's the curative final arteriogram. Other lesions such as this, I believe are related, at least some, although we don't have an antecedent history to the development of DVT, and again of course,

treated by the venous approach with cure. And then finally, some of the more problematic ones, another 56-year-old man with a history of prior iliofemoral DVT. Suddenly was fine, had been treated with heparin and anticoagulation.

And suddenly appeared with rapid onset of right lower extremity swelling and pain. So you see here that on an arteriogram of the right femoral, as well as, the super selective catheterization of some of these collaterals.

We can see the lesion itself. I think it's a nice demonstration of lesion. Under any other circumstance, this is an AVM. It is an AVM, but we know it to be acquired because he had no such swelling. This was treated in the only way I knew how to treat

with stenting of the vein. We placed a stent. That's a ballon expanded in the angiogram on your right is after with ballon inflation. And you can see the effect that the stenting pressure, and therefore subsequently occlusion of the compression,

and occlusion of the collaterals, and connections in the vein wall. He subsequently became asymptomatic. We had unfortunately had to stent extensively in the common femoral vein but he had an excellent result.

So I think pelvic AVMs are very similar in location and appearance. We've had 13 cases. Some with a positive history of DVT. I believe many are acquired post-DVT, and the treatment is the same venous coiling and or stent.

Wayne has seen some that are remarkable. Remember Wayne we saw at your place? A guy was in massive heart failure and clearly a DVT-related. So these are some of the cases we've seen

and I think it's noteworthy to keep in mind, that we still don't know everything there is to know about AVMs. Some AVMs are acquired, for example, pelvic post-DVT, and of course all uterine AVMs. Thanks very much.

(audience applause) - [Narrator] That's a very interesting hypothesis with a pelvic AVMs which are consistently looking similar. - [Robert] In the same place right? - [Narrator] All of them are appearing at an older age. - [Robert] Yep.

Yep. - This would be a very, very good explanation for that. I've never thought about that. - Yeah I think-- - I think this is very interesting. - [Robert] And remember, exactly.

And I remember that internal iliac DVT is always a silent process, and that you have this consistency, that I find very striking. - [Woman] So what do you think the mechanism is? The hypervascularity looked like it was primarily

arterial fluffy vessels. - [Robert] No, no, no it's in the vein wall. If you look closely, the arteriovenous connections and the hypervascularity, it's in the vein wall. The lesion is the vein wall,

it's the inflammatory vein. You remember Tony, that the thing that I always think of is how we used to do plain old ballon angioplasty in the SFA. And afterwards we'd get this

florid venous filling sometimes, not every case. And that's the very tight anatomic connection between those two. That's what I think is happening. Wayne? - [Wayne] This amount is almost always been here.

We just haven't recognized it. What has been recognized is dural fistula-- - Yep. - That we know and that's been documented. Chuck Kerber, wrote the first paper in '73 about the microvascular circulation

in the dural surface of the dural fistula, and it's related to venous thrombosis and mastoiditis and trauma. And then as the healing process occurs, you have neovascular stimulation and fistulization in that dural reflection,

which is a vein wall. And the same process happens here with a DVT with the healing, the recanalization, inflammation, neovascular stimulation, and the development of fistulas. increased vascular flow into the lumen

of the thrombosed area. So it's a neovascular stimulation phenomenon, that results in the vein wall developing fistula very identical to what happens in the head with dural fistula had nothing described of in the periphery.

- [Narrator] Okay, very interesting hypothesis.

- So I'm just going to talk a little bit about what's new in our practice with regard to first rib resection. In particular, we've instituted the use of a 30 degree laparoscopic camera at times to better visualize the structures. I will give you a little bit of a update

about our results and then I'll address very briefly some controversies. Dr. Gelbart and Chan from Hong Kong and UCLA have proposed and popularized the use of a 30 degree laparoscopic camera for a better visualization of the structures

and I'll show you some of those pictures. From 2007 on, we've done 125 of these procedures. We always do venography first including intervascular intervention to open up the vein, and then a transaxillary first rib resection, and only do post-operative venography if the vein reclots.

So this is a 19 year old woman who's case I'm going to use to illustrate our approach. She developed acute onset left arm swelling, duplex and venogram demonstrated a collusion of the subclavian axillary veins. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy

and then balloon angioplasty were performed with persistent narrowing at the thoracic outlet. So a day later, she was taken to the operating room, a small incision made in the axilla, we air interiorly to avoid injury to the long thoracic nerve.

As soon as you dissect down to the chest wall, you can identify and protect the vein very easily. I start with electrocautery on the peripheral margin of the rib, and use that to start both digital and Matson elevator dissection of the periosteum pleura

off the first rib, and then get around the anterior scalene muscle under direct visualization with a right angle and you can see that the vein and the artery are identified and easily protected. Here's the 30 degree laparoscopic image

of getting around the anterior scalene muscle and performing the electrocautery and you can see the pulsatile vein up here anterior and superficial to the anterior scalene muscle. Here is a right angle around the first rib to make sure there are no structures

including the pleura still attached to it. I always divide, or try to divide, the posterior aspect of the rib first because I feel like then I can manipulate the ribs superiorly and inferiorly, and get the rib shears more anterior for the anterior cut

because that's most important for decompressing the vein. Again, here's the 30 degree laparoscopic view of the rib shears performing first the posterior cut, there and then the anterior cut here. The portion of rib is removed, and you can see both the artery and the vein

are identified and you can confirm that their decompressed. We insufflate with water or saline, and then perform valsalva to make sure that they're hasn't been any pneumothorax, and then after putting a drain in,

I actually also turn the patient supine before extirpating them to make sure that there isn't a pneumothorax on chest x-ray. You can see the Jackson-Pratt drain in the left axilla. One month later, duplex shows a patent vein. So we've had pretty good success with this approach.

23 patients have requires post operative reintervention, but no operative venous reconstruction or bypass has been performed, and 123 out of 125 axillosubclavian veins have been patent by duplex at last follow-up. A brief comment on controversies,

first of all, the surgical approach we continue to believe that a transaxillary approach is cosmetically preferable and just as effective as a paraclavicular or anterior approach, and we have started being more cautious

about postoperative anticoagulation. So we've had three patients in that series that had to go back to the operating room for washout of hematoma, one patient who actually needed a VATS to treat a hemathorax,

and so in recent times we've been more cautious. In fact 39 patients have been discharged only with oral antiplatelet therapy without any plan for definitive therapeutic anticoagulation and those patients have all done very well. Obviously that's contraindicated in some cases

of a preoperative PE, or hematology insistence, or documented hypercoagulability and we've also kind of included that, the incidence of postop thrombosis of the vein requiring reintervention, but a lot of patients we think can be discharged

on just antiplatelets. So again, our approach to this is a transaxillary first rib resection after a venogram and a vascular intervention. We think this cosmetically advantageous. Surgical venous reconstruction has not been required

in any case, and we've incorporated the use of a 30 degree laparoscopic camera for better intraoperative visualization, thanks.

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