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An Overview of PET, MRI and PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
An Overview of PET, MRI and PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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PET/MRI vs PET/CT | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
PET/MRI vs PET/CT | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Patient Education PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Patient Education PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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MRI Safety & Screening | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
MRI Safety & Screening | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Program Implementation | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Program Implementation | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Staff Requirements & Education | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Staff Requirements & Education | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Clinical Workflow for PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Clinical Workflow for PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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PET/MRI Case Study #2 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
PET/MRI Case Study #2 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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PET/MRI Case Study #3 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
PET/MRI Case Study #3 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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PET/MRI Case Study #4 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
PET/MRI Case Study #4 | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Q&A PET/MRI  | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Q&A PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
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Transcript

I good afternoon everyone my name is Ross Lozada and today with Murphy Aldana we will be presenting pet MRI and you technique to obtain high quality diagnostic images for oncology patients we have no disclosures Murphy and I live in New York City it is the place with

over 8 million in population 3 million of which are foreign-born about 800 different languages are being spoken other than English and they love in floor MRI of Memorial sloan-kettering Cancer Center we are reflection of these

statistics we speak about 10 languages which includes Sigala Chinese Russian Korea and Albanian just to name a few and about 70% of our staff are foreign-born actually I can count in one hand or how many are born in the United

States but despite our differences we have a few things in common one is that we all love our jobs and we take pride at what we do and T in taking care of our cancer patients and also we love food

this is a typical potluck in our Union we love our pot Luck's we do it for every holiday for every birthday in even random days where we just say hey you want to eat here we have some stuffed cabbage some rice biryani some mac and

cheese and quiche some caldereta and adobo some curry goat and a Haitian rice called John John but back to our topic our objectives for today is to provide an overview of pet and MRI imaging modalities discuss the application of

pet MRI imaging of oncology patients describe the care of the patient undergoing paddan-aram identify the nursing implications and to review some case studies so what is pet pet or

positron emission tomography is the use

of a radioactive tracer in this case FD gee her fluorodeoxyglucose to assess the metabolic activity of ourselves ftg is tagged with glucose and glucose is used by our body for energy cancer cells are thought to be our Armour hypermetabolic

so if we inject FDG to our patients it goes to areas with hyper metabolic activity this area is called a hotspot and when a hotspot is noted in a PET scan its it's thought to be cancerous this is an example of a hyper metabolic

region noted in the pelvic area of the patient this patient is diagnosed of cervical cancer and what is MRI as you all know MRI is the use of radio frequency currents produced by strong magnetic fields to provide detailed

anatomical structures it is the preferred method for imaging soft tissue organs and there's no ionizing radiation present now what is pet MRI pet MRI is a combination of these two modalities instead of going to two scans using two

scanners we have one scanner that is able to obtain pet and MRI images simultaneously so why can't we just call this pet well we run through a few problems we have fdg-pet CT where it's a PET scan with low-dose CT accompanying

it and there's fdg-pet CT with diagnostic CT we're full sequences of CT is coupled with a scan and a pet MRI always has a diagnostic MRI done with it

there are advantages of this modality one there's less radiation exposure for

the patient we receive about three millisieverts of background radiation every year with one PET scan a patient can get up to eight years worth of background radiation in just one skin the only exposure of radiation a patient

gets in a pet MRI is through the isotope pet MRI has a better disease characterization especially for areas in a Patou biliary region the pelvic areas and the kidneys information and the relationship between lesions and

adjacent tissue is better delineated with the pet MRI so it's easier to see which part is cancerous and which partners normal cells there are varying opinions and research studies are being done to make a determination if pet MRI

is a better modality than pet CTS well PET CT is a lower-cost skin has increased accessibility there are more PET scanners available and more more technologists are trained for this modality PET CT is a shorter skin there

are no contraindications for affairs implants pet CTS are preferred method for imaging the lungs of thoracic nodules and bone structures however with a pet MRI it's good for soft tissue organs such as the brain the muscle

delivered the kidneys the pancreas our GYN pelvic structures such as ovaries the uterus and cervix and also the prostate there are limitations of this skin one it is a much longer skin one whole body pet MRI can last at least

about an hour there are contraindications with certain implants due to the magnetic factor of the of this test and is not preferred for imaging air-filled structures because it can give off artifacts there

are weight limitations for our machine our machine holes can hold up to about 500 pounds of weight it is this our machine as smaller bore compared to the white board MRI the MRI whiteboy is about 70 centimeters in diameter

our pet MRI machine is only 60 centimeters in diameter in this picture the difference of the 10 centimeter difference doesn't seem much however if you put a patient in there and this is one of our coworkers

he is 270 pounds and 6 feet tall and the white board MRI his shoulders fit comfortably well inside it in the sky inside the scanner however in this pet MRI machine he said he did feel a little snug and a little tight inside

but you also have to take an account that we have to put coils on top of our patients that 10 centimeters does make a big difference the coils will help us give the good quality images that we like and I also have to note that we

have to put the head coil or the helmet on top of the patient's head to give good images of the brain the reason why the pet MRI scanner is smaller is because we have to make room for the pet detectors we try to make it bigger the

gradient coil on the radiofrequency coil have to be further away from the center of the magnet and that compromises the quality of our images so which patient

gets pet MRIs right now our main focus are our oncology patients it helps us

determine the type of cancer they have the diagnosis of cancer assess disease progression treatment therapy and treatment planning and some antecessor treatment response so let's say a lesion is FDG avid and

has low blood perfusion that would help our physicians to us to say what kind of treatment they can give to the patient pet MRI is also good for patients who can tolerate longer scans right now it's a very young modality

there's still a lot of research goes on with this and coupled with that is advantage of research right now we actually in the Memorial sloan-kettering we have started using this instead of FDG we've used gallium 68 of to assess

neuroendocrine tumors who have also done cervical lymph Austin Tiger phim where FDG is injected directly at the patient's cervical cavity and that helps map out the lymph nodes in the survey in the pelvic area this can be used by the

surgeon and see what lymph nodes can be sampled during the surgery we provide some education and assessment before during and after the pet MRI we assess for the patient's allergies we tell the patient's they have to be NPO at least

six hours prior to FDG injection as for our anxious patients they often come pre-medicated and this just comes with some care coordination with their physician the physician would prescribe some low-dose anti-anxiety medications

and the patient would take it an hour before their test as for our claustrophobic patients we what we have done is we let them see the Machine we let we let them feel the Machine we put them inside if they would want to and it

would be up to them if they would be tolerating the scan we assess for their diabetes regimen and my refe will speak more about that later we assess for patients pregnancy status on patients loving to fifty years old process for

their breastfeeding status and screen their implants during the pet MRI we tell them about the coil placement we give them an emergency call bell and we tell them to decrease their movement well being is like although our some of

our patients would say I didn't move but then the image so differently there there's a possibility that the magnet can induce some involuntary twitching after the MRI we tell them that they can resume their

diet they can resume their diabetic diabetes regimen and as if they get MRI contrast they can pump and dump for about 24 hours after the test but if they don't get a contrast they can keep their breast milk inside the fridge just

to help to decay just to decay the isotope that was given to the patient it doesn't give any harm to the baby

MRA safety is one of our top priorities in our unit we have set up MRI zones zone one being the patient waiting area

zone two is where they change and they get screened zone three is where our control room is and anyone who passes by zone three has to get screened our pet MRI injection room is actually inside zone three and zone four is an MRI

scanner itself we assess risk in our patients for their implants we were iterate to them the importance of bringing their implant card with them just so it's easier for us to assess the compatibility of their their implants

with MRI right now we have the capability of scanning cardiac pacemakers and defibrillators it just needs more coordination with our in-house cardiology service and the implant representative rest assure

expanders and aneurysm clips are so contraindicated inside the skin we tell our patients to remove some items that they are able to remove such as dentures hearing aids piercings and prosthetics if they have it as for radiation safety

we observed the concept of Alera or as low as reasonably achievable you know before we inject the patient with the isotope we keep them comfortable we give them blankets we give them the pillows and we tell them

after they get injected that they are radioactive so we try to limit our exposure to them after they get the injection now we try to keep our distance from them and we have shielding lead shielding within the pet MRI area

now we have lead shield syringes available for the nurses use and we have dedicated a hot hot bath room a hot room and radio pharmacy we Ritter we give these puppies this injection card to the patient after they get the scan and we

were either a to them the importance of this card we have the stories from our patients where after the after they scan gone home and they passed through the tunnels or the bridges that they actually have been pulled over by the

police because the police have very sensitive radioactive detectors there was one patient who may have forgotten his card may have lost his card and he got pulled over and the police had to call our institution to confirm that he

really did have an isotope injected we

do anesthesia for some of our cases mostly to our pediatric patients but we are also capable of doing it through the adults they need some anesthesia clearance patient is asked to be NPO

after midnight we have equipment available that are MRI compatible such as the monitors the IV pumps and the anesthesia ventilator machine when we set up the the patient inside the scanner we have to be wary of the lines

the table does move in and out during the test we don't want any of those IV tubing's get snagged we've done pretty good job in securing these lines usually by taping it on top of the coils after the pet MRI with

anesthesia is done they go to the PO 70 anesthesia care unit for recovery and I

turned the mic to my FA which she will be speaking about program implementation staff education requirements clinical work form and review some case studies

Thank You rose and good afternoon ladies and gentlemen I'm Rafael Donna I'm one of the regular genders at Memorial sloan-kettering I'd like to thank you now because I don't know later I might pass out because just a nervousness if

that possible let me know later okay I would like to acknowledge Pyrrha she's trying to leave now she's have to go back to New York thank you for helping us to make this presentation possible and Renee

he's here he's our clinical radiology director he's very supportive of us and thank you too Larisa Sanchez our nurse leader and Erika leer and are in for making this giving us opportunity to present before

I go into my part of the presentation let's say let's do a PET scan into to our MRI team you see the white floating areas over there let's pretend us the normal uptake from pet SDG but if we do pet MRI look what happens yay you see

their smiles it's very very vivid colors our team is very diverse you could see from all we come from all over different parts of the world they are awesome they help us give us this very good images that we're going to present today

the MS Casey pet MRI program planning and implementation took over a year the department have to hire dual modality artis who specifically trained for pet and MRI the cross training of our ends because we all MRI nurses we have to

cause cross train to nuclear medicine and pet department the construction of the radio pharmacy in the MRI suite and the development of the pet amar protocols in collaboration with the bio engineers physicists the radiology

leadership the attending radiologist the radiology leadership our ends and the artis also the compliance with the State Department of Health regulation guidelines very important part of this

program is the stuff requirements and

stuff education all personnel who works in this department the radiology department have to complete successfully the web-based training for level 1 and level 2 safety MRI training including the housekeeping

and also the hospital staff that comes to the department have to fill up a screening form after doing so you'll be given a sticker placed in the back of your ID and it's good for a year and that serves as your pass coming to MRI

so you don't need to fill it up every time you come in and the initial radiation safety training is given by our safety radiation safety officer in the start all it's on higher and also the best training for RT Sundarbans

course training to nuclear med and the pet department it is important if you work in the radial pharmaceutical area that you know the basic concept of spill management the acronym cares I would like to acknowledge that this acronym is

done or formulated by our nurse leader le carré leer C stands for contains pill and opened the checklist the checklist should be available or posted to all areas where major pharmaceutical agents are administered a s alert the

technologist and supervisor they're very knowledgeable in taking care of the spills our is to restrict the area don't let anyone come in and step onto his areas of spill remove the patient if possible he is to educate the patient

you have to reassure the patient there is no health hazard or nuclear hazard to them yes is to sanitize sanitize the area of spill and record in the medical record is very important but what to do when this bill occurs in the zone for of

the MRI we were prior to going that I would like to show you the how our Rachel active spill checklist looks like this is formulated by Pierre Robson it would take you I would give you guidelines on how to do step by steps in

case of nuclear spill and what to do for spills that occur in MRI so on for first cover the area with absorbable material remove patient from stone for prior to proceeding to the decontamination process contact

radiology leadership they're the one to direct surface contamination within zone four and remember the Geiger counters are MRI unsafe so how we check the Geiger counts you have to use an absorbable material you keep wiping and

then bring it out and measure the Geiger level until you keep doing that until it gets cleared also remember that the MRI magnet is always on so have someone is done guard outside the door so anyone that would need to go inside the room

would have to be scanned again and screen this is our ms KCC clinical

workflow for pet MRI upon arrival the patient have to fill out questionnaires the MRI screening for contrast and allergy assessment pet screening form

the RT will review MRI screening for after he checked that the patients at MRI safe and no presence of a Mia Ferris fragments or anything he would give the paper to the RN the patient then will be escorted through the change room and

asked to put on robe and non slip shots this is these are the responsibilities of the nurse in our clinical workflow for pet MRI RN to review pet screening form and contrast questionnaire if patient have to receive gadolinium check

kidney function EGFR below 15 you notify the radiologist except for a of s below 30 you notify the radiologist check for allergies if allergic make sure patients is properly pre-medicated

check for Medicaid presence of medication patches and implanted infusion pumps now also you have to check for patient's blood glucose monitoring I have one but I would but I don't go inside the scanner so I'm safe

check for pregnancy status with pediatric patients we have a special process to follow the iron then obtains blood glucose and record if blood glucose is 70 to 199 we proceed with the scan anything above 200 we follow the

glycemic management with PET imaging flow chart and here's how our PET imaging flow chart looks like it looks complicated by its color coded it's three pages but I would like to show you some key points like the administration

of insulin is also based on the level of BMI you see on the arrow says BMI below 25 and there's another flow chart is if it's above 25 after that the patient will be brought back to the pet designated injection room

remember our pet MRI is located in zone three of the MRI area so prior to that the RT would the screen the patient again the patient would pass through the wall-mounted metal detector and nobody could go into song free without escorted

by the IRT or a nurse you have to swipe your ID to open the door mission when the patients in the hot room are in would obtain the height in centimeters and weight in kilos after that the RN now could do IV access once

secured you call the range of pharmacists that you're ready to inject so we wait until and the FDG dose would come up through the pneumatic children this is how our hot lab looks like the pneumatic tube to your left above is the

shower and we have the hoop to prepare for the dose or check for the dose and the wash station and once the those arrives the nurse injecting and the RT is scanning or the RT assisting just always two artists in one machine in our

MRI Department we have four magnets and only one is for MRI PET MRI it's always two artists in each machine so one RT is assisting you and with the patient so once the FDG arrives we do a patient identification using two patient

identifiers we check the label and the dose if it's correct the FDG then will be injected to the patient once injected we tell the patient they have to wait for 40 minutes during this time we instruct them to stay still not stay

still but limit movement and stimulation and inform them that we have a camera inside that room and the nurses in a and the nurses could monitor them in the nurse's station one RT will set up the scanner and computer

and patient will be screen and wondered prior to so on for so you get wandered twice check for ferrous presence patient then will be positioned on the scanner table by the pet mr technologies it takes 15

to 20 minutes for setup you have seen how the patient is position the whole body is covered by the coils and head is covered by another coil as anybody among he works in the institution who requires time out prior to injection raise your

hand please at ms KCC we do this is done by the injecting nurse and the RT is scanning the RT is reading information directly from the monitor not anywhere in the monitor while the nurse is comparing and listening into the using

the documents on hand this is done to ensure the five rights the right patient the right scan the right area your scanning the right contrast those and rate and method of administration as you all know is either given IV push or by

the dynamic or the injector timeout will be done if patient will be receiving gadolinium once the scan is finished IV access will be removed our artists are trying to remove and inject also so they are capable of removing the IV the

radiation card will be handed to the patient and paste after that patient would be assisted to the change room and discharge there is good thing when you change the patient into the robe and the non-skid

sucks because just in case there's a spill you're not sending that patient into the paper outfit they're not gonna be happy at all now I'm gonna bring you

to our case study the first case study is the normal whole body pet MRI the the

image song to your left it's a regular pet MRI the one on the right as you could see it's a big difference there is very vivid image and you could pinpoint the organs they are not to me of the patient this is normal

scan there is normal uptake on the brain the ureters the bladder the kidneys those are normal there's no abnormal uptake or there's no hypermetabolic uptake noted the next case study is a 59

year old patient diagnosed with

glioblastoma lesion is located on the left frontal lobe this is done after radiation and surgery the image to your left is just a regular MRI with contrast gadolinium is the one used this time we always be the drum in the context of

choice is gadolinium in our institution you could notice the big size of the glioblastoma lesion onto the left frontal lobe of the patient as indicated in the round ring patient went for treat radiation and surgery look at the two

images to your right the one in the middle is done Pet MRI without the contrast take a note on the area where the lesion was before there is normal uptake but you don't notice any abnormal uptake and on to your right is post

treatment MRI is that those two are done the same day and with gadolinium the deletion the area where the the ring it is enhanced by the contrast but look at it there is no hypermetabolic uptake that means that the lesion is not viable

so the malignancy is not viable this time this scan is done to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment it's a good sign before I go to the third case

study I would like to share to you in personal note that my training school

books and experiences never prepared me for all the different types of cancer I have seen while working at Memorial sloan-kettering I have come to realize that cancer does not discriminate it doesn't matter how old you are

socioeconomic status gender race color of your skin and geographical location and religious beliefs and taking care of the young pediatric patients makes me the saddest if cancer hits you it hits you

the youngest patient that ever took care of is two months old infant diagnosed with glioblastoma I remember that day clearly because I booboo the whole day based on this here comes the third case study this is a four year old child

diagnosed with hepatoblastoma a pet MRI with anesthesia is done the image to your left is pet and on the right is pet MRI you see the difference in the images this scan is done for the doctor to evaluate the extent of the disease you

could see there is a hypermetabolic uptake in the liver and in the pelvic area the color red on top of the head the patient that's normal that's a normal uptake there is no increase in the uptake so this considered normal

we're gonna do our closer look and I would like to show you the difference between the PET CT and the pet MRI the image on the middle is the PET CT done on March you could see how where are the areas that are you could see all the

increased uptake on the areas like the chest the neck thoracic region and the abdominal region the the bright area there at the bottom Dustin or my bladder up take look at the image on to your right that's a close-up loop of the

sagittal PET CT done on same month you could see clear I could see where the location of the abnormal act uptake are circled by the the white circle there is abnormal uptake in the spine and in the chest and

of course where the hepato blastoma is located but looking to your left that's the bet MRI you see how the image is so clear and defined you could now count from the you could count where the exact location is it's on T 11 and is in the

vertebra and there's evidence of the actual cord compression with all you know all you know is a neuro emergency this is a four year old child and the other abnormal app takes you could see also so this child don't only have

hepatoblastoma but also have OSHA's metastases so the scan is done to evaluate the extent of the cancer the last cases study is the 41 year old

female recently diagnosed with cervical cancer this is the baseline imaging the

one on the left is pet the one on to your right is pet MRI which one you think the doctor likes better so there is a cervical lesion you could see the abnormal uptick or hypermetabolic uptake in the cervical area that's what we call

hot spots but we do a closer look because the pet MRI this time is used or done for planning for surgery or treatment look at the actual pet MRI you could see the hypermetabolic uptake in the cervical area the normal bladder

and normal uterus those are normal updates under your right you could see the uterus full the full outline of the uterus and exactly where the cervical lesion is located and the bright one at

the bottom is the normal blood er this scan is done to help the doctors plan for the surgery and to check if there is metastasis at this time there's none and the path MRI is choice of modality of choice for this reason because MRI is

the only modality that could do all the planes and it does very good in differentiation of tissues this is the end of our presentation and if you have any questions feel free to do so I did not pass out thank you

[Applause] [Music] [Applause]

I'm the FDG is have a radio pharmacy located on the second floor no New York State does allow nuclear medicine

technologist and nurses to inject the con the FDG isotope I know in other states one in particular is is New Jersey the the nurses are not allowed to inject isotope and the technologist has to do it also in addition certain

isotopes and certain scans the ducts have to inject the contrast like the the cervical Lin scintigraphy and some so my question has to do with discharge instructions so just like you give them that little card that they keep with

them so they trigger some radiation alarm and a bridge or on a highway do you give them discharge instructions about if there's small children at home that they're not sitting in their lap for extended period what kind of

instructions do you give on discharge after these patients so we when they come in coupled with the screening forms that they fill out we have some instructions attached to it and does that does have

the discharge instructions but we reiterate to them you know if they have small children or babies and pregnant women and just try to keep their distance for the next 12 to 24 hours just to until the really activity has

wear off so the FDG is like two hours almost for the half life FDA FDA has 60 minutes 116 minutes half life and usually by 12 hour by the 12 hour period they're mostly background radiation okay thank you

we had they have a written instruction like it's like a packet that we give into the market that we do to the patient and the patient have accessed to the web portal that they have and they can be the instructions from there

this is correct so betta bar is still investigational for the most part the only way you can build for it is two different scans you build for a pet and you build for our mr so you've got to get approval for both what you are not

going to get reimbursed for is the registration and that's where it gets a little bit challenging because then you need a radiologist who is both certified uncredentialed to read a pet and an mr so right now most institution bill it as

two different procedures so that's why you that's how we get the approvals just a little information on the side I went back to this case study because I forgot to tell you that in order for the PET CT to have as clear image as the pet MRI

the pet portion I mean the city portion and the pet city would have to be done diagnostically and that this would expose the patient to radiation three times that's why they prefer the pet MRI because yeah the reason why we do it if

we do it mostly for for for pediatrics and it's it and it's because of radiation because you know like our my team is saying you you are going to have this patient have constant follow-up so if you can reduce the amount of

radiation they have from a younger age as we all know it work in radiology DNA injuries occur when you're younger then more is more severe than than later our MRI the pet MRI injection they're all lined with lead and our MRI the pet

MRI room is actually lined with lead so we don't really have Needham let aprons we don't know we don't have wear aprons they are allowed to go to other appointments after they are pet MRI usually with the FDG most of the

radiation after the Tessa's finish is gone they're not more than what not more than radioactive than background radiation so they are are safe to be around people yes that's more for precautionary

measures yes no they go straight to the PACU so we our MRI table is detachable we have an area for where we keep our inpatient bay area we have a structured ready for them to go into right after the test and the

anesthesiologist and if they are Pediatrics the pediatric nurse is with them and they go straight to pack you do like probably like probably less than ten a week right now some weeks we are busy we do for how we do that much some

it varies like we'll do three or four but we are trying because the reimbursement that's one of the big issue our institution is actually eaten eating the cost for some of these to provide a patient with less radiation

especially or pediatric population we have one pet MRI machine for the whole institution three at the main campus we have two we have multiple and other regional sites so the yes

no less than 15 GFR except for the EU vist less than 30 then we notified the radiologists eeeh this is harder to so you this is the it's a linear contrast as opposed to the Catalan bettervest which is

macrocyclic so it's easier for the body to get rid of well there yes well they're only they're already getting dialysis so it's really not much of a harm yes we do patients on dialysis but we make sure the dialysis is done within

24 hours after receiving the contrast yes um sometimes you know you just have it to have it we don't require it for all the tests if you have it we have it we check if it's already in the chart we

acknowledge it you know we don't require for outpatient we don't require but in patients we do all right anything okay so Bernie pet/ct the scanning time for pet/ct is about 30 minutes to 45 minutes Patsy pet/ct is about 30 to 45 minutes

with the pet MRI sometimes they they order dedicated pet MRIs so that is a little longer you have to take note that we do a whole body scan whole body scans for even just for a regular MRI is at least an hour so we try to eliminate

just you know having them have to have to or point to different appointments and just one waiting room one waiting time so that cuts down the response for the patient themselves yes we do for adults it's 12 for the

whole body and then for the pet brain it's about 10 if I'm not mistaken and then plus or minus 10% and then the pediatric doses are cultured calculated base of their height and their weight and there are all protocol by a

radiologist because we have a lot of whole-body protocols we have the bone survey actually that's about 30 or 40 minutes and yes that's an hour and then we have longer whole body protocols diseases

specific and sometimes they try to depends on what the patient's diagnosis is we have whole body scans where they have to check the bone marrow and that needs to be from tips of the toes and tips of the fingers and that can be a

challenge especially if the patient is tall because that has to be in sequest sequestered and sequential patient and positioning is also a challenge alright thank you so much thank you thank you so much

[Applause]

Disclaimer: Content and materials on Medlantis are provided for educational purposes only, and are intended for use by medical professionals, not to be used self-diagnosis or self-treatment. It is not intended as, nor should it be, a substitute for independent professional medical care. Medical practitioners must make their own independent assessment before suggesting a diagnosis or recommending or instituting a course of treatment. The content and materials on Medlantis should not in any way be seen as a replacement for consultation with colleagues or other sources, or as a substitute for conventional training and study.