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The Disease Process | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
The Disease Process | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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TIPS: Techniques- CO2 Venography | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
TIPS: Techniques- CO2 Venography | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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TIPS: Techniques- Stent Grafts | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
TIPS: Techniques- Stent Grafts | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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PV Access | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
PV Access | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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Stent Graft Deployment | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
Stent Graft Deployment | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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Ideal Stent Placement | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
Ideal Stent Placement | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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Complications & Pitfalls | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
Complications & Pitfalls | TIPS & DIPS: State of the Art
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Transcript

so these are a lot of slides most limited you know I'm talking I'm talking to you guys I'm talking showing you a lot of technical stuff you know and a lot of slides and I'm gonna talk mostly technical of you know how tips and dips are done kind of a step by step so even

the title it's kind of a workshop step by step of how basically you do you do tips and dips and what and and what are they so in general when you have when you have this is basically kind of out flow spleen spleen dumps blood into the

portal vein the mesentery dumps blood into the portal vein portal vein goes into liver liver does its thing and then dumps the blood into the eppadi veins to the right atrium okay for that because the liver is connected with the spleen

and the guts in series unlike any other organ basically the liver has to be a low-resistance organ because the portal circulation is low-pressure look the liver has to be a low-resistance organ with liver disease especially liver

cirrhosis you actually get increased resistance and in the liver with that disease and you get basically a backup of the blood flow in the portal circulation and increases the pressure in the portal circulation that's kind of

the genesis of or the pathogenesis of portal hypertension backing up circulation the spleen and in the guts then you get ascites and hydra thorax that's kind of think of it as weeping of fluid into the pleural space and into

the and into the perineum part of it is oncotic part of is osmotic basically think of it nutritional and pressure driven causes at the same time we all have potential portosystemic connections in other words they're there but they're

not connected or they're not opened up in plumbing they hold them bleed valves or pressure valves when the pressure is high and you know they start weeping or leaking you know in your in your basements we have the same thing

we have so many portosystemic connections there are about 55 named ones there are innumerable ones that are actually that are actually not named the common ones that we know are because of because of bleeding is esophageal

varices that's the connection usually between the left gastric vein and the azekah can be hazardous system you can also get gastric varices and that's usually connecting between a spleen and the left renal vein through a gas renal

shunts you can get also all sorts of connections even down in the internal hemorrhoids we get actually portal hypertension hemorrhoids and bleeding and so many numerous other shunts that we just don't have time to cut to cover

it to cover all these so the general to the general thought of treating all these complications of portal hypertension is to decompress the system to reduce the pressure and that's along the lines of years and decades of

surgery shunts that were placed and now tips ism largely replaced all these surgical shunts with the exception of Vancouver and Tampa okay that they still do some surgical actually a lot of surgical shunts most most other places

in North America converge to a tip to a tip shunt the the advantage of the tips of over surgical shunts is the usual what we hear is minimally invasive it you know it's a quick recovery less morbidity and mortality areason for

white tips has beaten the surgical shunts is the transplant era all these surgical shunts are actually extrahepatic so when you go for a transplants and liver hits the buckets they actually have to go and shut down

these shunts wherever they created them steena renal portal cable in the tips it goes out with a liver in the bucket so there's no complication of transplantation that's the real advantage of tips over surgical shunts

and that's why it's become very very prevalent in in in North America with a transplant error when approaching gastric varices just briefly another way is a BRT Oh which is to go basically into the left renal vein go up the shunt

and specifically screw rows the stomach and that's not the that's not this kind of subject of our of our discussion here I'm gonna talk to you

technically step by step of how tips are done okay and and the ideal tips with

every step of this procedure I'm gonna show you two ways of doing it okay and the advantages and disadvantages of the two ways in every step okay so first of all the primary thing is to get into the portal vein and how do you visualize the

portal vein okay so one way is to do co2 Vinogradova nog Rafi to hit the portal vein me with experience no I don't need co2 venography to hit the portal vein but I still do it in an in a teaching institution because I have texture that

are learning nurses they're learning and physicians are learning so I actually do the imaging for them so they actually can get the general idea of what we're doing this is our target this is where we're coming off and that's it but in an

experience hands is it necessary absolutely not okay so co2 photography very helpful for in teaching and teaching institutions so everybody and the whole team can actually know exactly what our target is so not essential like

like we discuss and there are two methods of doing this and in a funny way I'm gonna show you that's actually the same method but one is a micro of the other one okay so two ways one way is then wedge a catheter that's the old way

kind of more traditional way than let's not call it always more traditional way of doing a co2 port and the other one is using a balloon of balloon occlusion castra and this is wedging it with a four French five French catheter you

take it all the way to where the catheter is larger than the hepatic vein and now you've wedged it okay and this is kind of a mag up you see that that's a little that's a little wedge okay you wedge you inject contrast the contrast

just sits there it's wedged it's trapped okay and then this is with a balloon to your left is a balloon full of air to the right full of contrast and you basically trapped it again you fill contrast and consciousness it's there

what's the difference between this image and this image no difference the only difference is size that's all it's the same idea you're just trapping a segment of the liver the difference is this is a very

small segment and this is a larger segment okay so essentially it's actually the same technique one is just well technically when it comes to your side all one needs a four or five French calf the other one needs a balloon

occlusion caster okay same image so then you inject co2 the key thing here if you're the type of physician where you put contrasts you have a balloon sitting or a wedge and you have to count contrast there okay

rookie mistake is that they leave the contrast and then they hit the co2 okay what is that you've lost the advantage of the co2 in the beginning of your bolus is actually contrast okay so you need to bleed out the contrast and

replace it completely co2 so your entire bolus okay is co2 and not and not and not the and not the contrast okay that defeats the purpose why is co2 advantageous over contrast contrast is a thick fluid co2 is gas is viscous it's

volatile it actually can squeeze through tight spaces as it's a gas and that's what we want we want to squeeze that co2 which is a contrast through the sinusoids reflux it back into the portal circulation so we're trapping it and

we're trying to push co2 squeezing it through the sinusoids refluxing it back into the portal circulation so you can actually visualize the portal circulation okay and all and the disadvantage of a wedge is what you see

here if you're a wedge and you're immediately sub capsular and you slam you slam that co2 aggressively what you will get is an explosion you get a rip of those of the hepatic capsule scroll the glisten capsule and then you've got

a leak and if the patient is quite low is a quite low path they can actually die from this believe it or not they will die from this and not die from the needle passes okay so that's kind of co2 and that's kind of

a little a little passive air into the perineum nice imaging not a good outcome so one way to avoid this is to still wedge but wedge away from the hepatic capsule so you're out in the periphery in the paddock veins but you're deep

inside the liver you're not you're not right underneath the capsule so that's one way of doing it the other another way is to actually use a balloon okay so this is this is just another wedge here okay and you actually use a balloon I'm

just showing you a correlation with a balloon it's a little safer because you're a little distance away from from the hepatic capsule I'm just showing you a more and more image of the same thing co2 with correlation after you access

since it's a beautiful correlation with with the portal vein venogram okay there are problems with wedges and with balloons is that sometimes you get a gas you know a co2 leak you're wedged but there's hepatic veins at vadik vein

connections and all you see is a fatty veins you can't force reflux the co2 into the portal circulation so that's one problem okay so what do you do with that you change the sights just change a different different branch okay try to

avoid that connection between the badeck veins and it back veins go somewhere else where there is no connection where you can actually make a true hip wedge and force that co2 into the portal circulation okay another way this is

just a draw a drawing out whether it alone or a catheter you get that you get the escape from the Patek vein to fatty vein is to go distal go beyond that connection so if you can go distal go distal if you can't go distal then

change your branch try to find a place where there is no hepatic vein tip a degree engine attraction preferably but not necessarily not the same branches connected to because that usually goes both ways but not always sometimes

you're lucky and if that connection is kind of like a one-way valve one way street and it's not a two-way street but that's just sheer luck okay this is an example hepatic vein to about a vein connection and what we did was basically

switch to another place another vein and we actually get the portal venogram here okay next up sting crafts Viator's thank

craft is basically the only FDA approved stain crafts and I'll show you a

different way of doing it as well besides the Viator especially in countries where the Viator does not does not exist okay the Viator stand sits in the liver just like just like in my hand here the bare

portion is on the portal venous circulation the covered portion is basically on the hepatic vein part of the circulation okay the bare portion is chain-linked and is very flexible that's why kind of cut can crimp like that okay

they're both self expanding the bare portion is self expanding held by the sheath only the covered portion is held by a court okay so they're both self expanding but they're constraints by two different two different two different

methods one's a sheath constraint and one is a is a cord constraint okay these are the measurements the bare portion theoretically allows portal flow to pass if you're in a branch so it doesn't cost from boses of the portal vein branch in

the covered portion is important to cover the parental tract the youth that you've created in the past you had a lot of billary leaks into the tips if it's a bear stance bile is from by genic so it causes thromboses bile also instigates a

lot of reactionary tissue such as pseudo intimal hyperplasia that actually causes the narrowings of the of these tips if you causing bear stance the coverage stance prevents the bile leaks from actually leaking into into the shunt

itself okay and that's why it has a higher patency rate okay ideally this is how it's it's a portal vein and hepatic vein you'll hear people say proximal and distal you'll he'll hear radiologists especially diagnostic

radiologist referring to proximal and distal proximal and distal some people refer to the portal venous and is proximal some people refer to the paddock venous and is proximal and vice versa okay and it

gets confusing nobody knows well what's proximal okay the people that say portal venous and is proximal there they're talking about its proximal to flow so it's basically the first thing that flow hits people that

call the paddock venous and proximal they're talking relatives of the body more central is proximal more peripheral is distal okay so they're using these the same terminology is very confusing so the best thing to use and I we tell

that to radiologists who tell that to IRS is to talk a portal venous and hepatic venous end you don't talk proximal distal everybody knows where the portal venous end is and where everybody knows where the peregrinus end

is and there's no confusion strictly speaking which is the correct one which is proximal for us as IRS tax nurses proximal is always to flow proximal is always anticipate to flow so the correct thing is actually proximal

is the portal venous ends remember P proximal P portal okay proximal is where the expected flow is coming in that's actually the correct one but just to leave e8 the confusion portal venous and hepatic venous end okay there's a new

stents which is the controlled expansion stents it's in my opinion it feels exactly like the old stance the only difference between it is that it's constrained still has the same twenty to twenty millimeter or two centimeter bare

portion chain-linked it still has that four to eight centimeter covered portion but it's constrained in the middle okay and has the same gold ring to actually market the to the to a bare portion and the cover portion self expanding portion

and is constrained down to eight millimeters you can dilate it to eight and nine and ten initially there was a constant there was a misconception that it was like a string like a purse string that you break and jumps from eight

and no this is actually truly a controlled where if you put a nine-millimeter balloon it will dilate to nine only eight balloon little dialect to eight only the only the only key thing is that the atmospheres has to

be ten millimeters at least okay so it has to be a high pressure balloon has to be at least 10 min 10 10 atmospheres okay so when you're passing that that balloon over make sure that it's that that it that at least it's burst is 10

millimeters or or EXA or more on a 10 mil on on 10 atmospheres okay next thing is when you're making a needle pass you got your target now with a co2 you got the portal vein you've got your stank craft and you know how it works okay how

do you make your needle pass okay and how do you know if your needle has hit the portal vein or not there are two schools to do this okay one school is to make a needle pass and aspirate as you pull back and when you get blood back

you basically inject contrast okay before you do all that when you make your needle pass you push saline and especially if you do if you're using a large system so there are several kits out there there is the cook kits that's

a color pinto needle that's a large gauge 14 gauge needle there is the new gore kits which is also 14 gauge needle it's a big system these large systems you need to push out that poor plug that's kind of like a biopsy you have to

push it out with saline first and then as you pull back aspirate okay the other system is a ratio cheetah or a Rocha cheetah it's actually pronounced rasa schita and that's a very small system that there won't be a core that you have

to push out okay so anyway if you're using a large system like a coop into a needle which is the cook system or the gore system you push that plug out and then there are two schools school two aspirates you get blood back you inject

contrast if you're in the hepatic in in the portal vein you basically access it with a wire the other school is to do a ptc style you actually puff contrasts as you pull back you do not ask for H saline you actually puff

contrasts as you pull back okay the latter puffing contrasts as you pull back is the minority I would say less than two percent of operators are gonna puff okay ninety-eight percent of operators at

least are gonna actually aspirate and not puff okay I'm actually in the minority I'm in the 2% and there are advantages and disadvantages like I promised you two different ways and advantages and disadvantage to each to

each one the advantages of puffing contrasts even if you missed the portal vein after a while you actually get contrast around the portal vein and you actually have a visual of the portal vein that's the advantage so when you're

actually injecting contrast and you're missing it you get contrast around the portal vein it actually goes around the portal and you actually see the portal vein and it takes training sometimes this one's easy

okay I'll show you some more difficult ones but this is a beautiful pussy typical portal vein okay in addition to that oh go back in do you see that you see that hole in the middle there see that signal signal you watch that

because you're gonna see it again and again that's usually a posterior portal vein posterior right portal vein heading heading away from you okay that's usually a good target and I'll show you that again here's a little

little bit less obvious to the untrained eye but this is actually where the portal vein sits right there okay so sometimes it needs training right just actually see where the portal vein is and once you've stained the portal vein

then you have a real-time image of where the portal vein is you can actually go go after it and it reduces your needle passes disadvantages of using contrast and puffing away is that it creates a mess okay if you make multiple passes

you and you miss on the multiple passes then you start creating a mess and even with your DSA you can't even see the portal you can't see the portal vein because you've got this great mess another disadvantage of using contrast

is that you have to stomach what you're gonna see okay you make a needle pass and you don't inject contrast you have no proof of where you've been but if you're making a needle pass and you're

injecting contrast you and everybody else is gonna see where you've been that's usually not a good thing sometimes you will see bowel you see gold bladder you'll see arteries you'll see veins you'll see all sorts of stuff

that nobody wants to see and you don't want to document okay so that's another disadvantage so I recommend especially young physicians especially young physicians in places that are not used to this especially young physicians that

are new to hospitals and they're gonna they're gonna make multiple passes not to do this was they're gonna be very they'll be criticized a lot by their texts and by the institution by their colleagues as to what have you done you

know big mass artery you've hit artery but the guys and gals that are just aspirating and not injecting they're actually not documenting what they're going through but they're going through the same stuff okay

okay next up this I think this video yep

so this shows you this shows you how so this typically you've accessed the portal vein now and you're in next up you basically pass the wire down this just gives you a little depiction of

what you're what you're what you're doing here this think of this is a sagittal and Deliver okay hepatic vein and portal vein it's the sagittal and what you're trying to do is

and if you're in the right hepatic vein you need to pass your needle anteriorly to hit the right portal vein okay and the right portal vein is usually anterior and interfere to the Patek vein okay so you pass your wire you're you

NEET your needle and when if you're missing the portal vein usually what's happening is that you're scooping behind it okay your posterior to it and sometimes you'll find the operators will actually increase the curve in the

needle so they can actually reach anterior anterior and actually hit the portal vein because usually usually if you if you know you're in the right place that the right hepatic vein not in the middle of petting vain and

you're missing the portal vein you need to reach anterior more so they put a little extra curve in the kelp into needle to actually catch that right portal vein okay with liver cirrhosis you get shrinking shrinkage of the liver

size the liver decreases the portal vein starts moving more anterior and more superior and closer to that paddock vein okay and it becomes more and more difficult to actually hit it so the smaller the liver the harder the liver

the smaller the space and you've got a thick mat piece of metal okay it's very difficult to hit that okay it becomes more and more challenging with with smaller levels to hit to hit the portal vein especially centrally okay this is

an access kit a new access kit by Gore it's basically the similar to the similar to the Cal Pinto needle it's a little longer with a little bit increase angulation compared to the traditional ring kits or the Cole Pinto needle but

once accessed you pass a wire okay into the portal circulation there are two ways of doing this okay there's a traditional old-school way that's my way is that to use a Benson wire okay the youngsters the Millennials are using

glide wires okay so if you're dealing with a millennial physician they're usually going for the glide okay if you're dealing with them with an older you know guy or gal they're using usually using a Benson wire okay the

advantage of the Benson wire is that has a floppy tip it actually you just push it in and hits the wall it prolapses into the main portal vein right away as you can see just prolapse and portal vein if you're using a glide where

you're catching all sorts of things you'll have small branches you don't know where you're going your V's even sometimes dissecting outside of the portal vein they're second-guessing themselves all the time but actually the

good way with a little bit of more different skillset is that you use use actual good old fashioned Benson wire actually goes in prolapses right away into the ends of the main into the main portal vein rarely would I actually use

light or switch to a glare that's usually if I'm coming in in a small in a small branch or an orchid angle where I have to use a glide right to try to get around the angle because I don't have enough room for a Benson to actually hit

the wall and prolapse is very really really tight space so tights Bates funny angles I'll switch to a glide where if it's a straight forward a Benson as very is very straight forward okay try to get the sheath as much into the portal vein

over the over the needle over the wire as possible and then you balloon your tract okay through the sheath okay some people will balloon with a six millimeter boom some people will balloon with an eight millimeter blue eye

balloon with an eight four okay at night and I make sure it's a four so that I actually use the balloon as the measurements for this four centimeters actually you I actually use the balloon to measure my to measure my Viator's

stance okay with the balloon there there'll be two waists there's a portal venous entry site and the Ematic venous entry site so you actually gauge that and take a picture of it so you actually see how long your tract is where's your

hepatic venous access who has your portal venous axis actually gives you a lot of anatomy here been engaging in actually putting where your Viator stent is okay usually high pressure balloon I use it and ate some people will use a

six or even a seven millimeter balloon

okay stent graft deployments once you've ballooned you basically pass the sheath over the balloon all the way down to the portal circulation the reason for that

is the Viator stance has a bare portion that's captured by the sheath so your sheath has to be deep into the portal circulation so when you unsheath it it opens up and then you pull back so it snags on your portal venous entry so

it's a feel thing and a visual at the same time for the operator okay so your sheath has to be deep in the portal circulation so that dilates put your sheath all the way down this is a run just to make it look pretty for you guys

and then you basically deploy the Viator stent via tourists and like I said has a bear portion that's captured by the plastic here and that plastic sheath basically transfers the capture of the bare

portion from plastic to your entry or access sheath okay as a ring to it and put it in has a feel to it that ring has to be right there it's very common for people starting off to deploy it inside the sheath up so it's a kind of a feel

thing to actually make sure that it's actually in there snug with it with the sheath okay then you push the stents all the way into the sheath now the bare portion is captured by the sheath you remove the plastic it's over over and

done with and then you pass pass your your stent all the way down to the portal vein and then unsheath it like a wall stents let it open pull everything back till it snags on the portal venous entry sites and then unsheathed the rest

of it which is the covered portion and that stays constrained by the cord and then you pull then you pull the cord keep key portion here is this is the ideal tips and ideal ace tips is a tips from the portal vein bifurcation to the

a patek vein IVC junction okay that's an ace tips it's usually a straight tips it's the straightest tips you'll see it runs parallel to the caiva okay rookies will be doing tips down out in the

periphery and Deliver okay they'll be fishing for small portal veins out of his small hepatic veins and at the end their tips is gonna be like a big seat like a big C loop okay it'll be a longer tips with more stance and it won't be an

aggressive decompressive tips okay but an ace tips is a more aggressive central tips straights it comes from the portal vein bifurcation to the paddock vein IVC Junction that's kind of like an ace tips

okay unsheath it and then and you and then you pull the cord to basically deploy it and this is kind of a reenactments the Styrofoam cup is the portal vein the sheath is in there now over the wire there's no wire in the in

the reenactments and then you unsheath the bear portion so it opens up okay and then you pull everything back till it catches on the portal vein okay you move the sheath all the way back and

then you pull the cord you see the cord right there you pull the cord and it basically opens up the covered portion okay and it opens up from the portal venous end so it actually capped catches it right away catches that portal venous

entry sites there's no slippage and so basically rips open tip to hub okay and that's kind of your final product and then you go in and and then you go in and balloon okay so here it is ballooning put the sheath

over the balloon sheath is deep into the portal circulation you put the tips in your unsheath to cut the the the bare portion let it flower open you pull everything back to like snags you unsheath the rest of the stunt and then

you pull the cord okay and then you dilate with 8 or 10 or whatever so this is visit with the debilitation and that's kind of your final product ideal

stamp placement we talked a little bit about it I'm gonna talk to you a little

bit more about it and ideal stance is a straight stance that has a nice smooth curve with a portal vein and a nice smooth curve with a bad igneous end well you don't want is it is a tips that T's the sealing of the hepatic vein okay

that closes it okay and if there's a problem in the future it's very difficult to select okay or impossible to select okay you want it nice and smooth with a patek vein and IVC so you can actually get into it and it actually

has a nice hemodynamic outflow the same thing with the portal thing what you don't want is slamming at the floor of the portal vein and teeing that that floor where where it actually portly occludes your shunts okay or gives you a

hard time selecting the portal vein once you're in the tips in any future tips revisions okay other things you need it nice and straight so you do not want long curves new or torqued or kinks in your tips you

a nice aggressive decompressive tips that is nice and straight and opens up the tips shunt okay we talked a little bit you don't want it you don't want to tee the kind of the ceiling of the of the hepatic vein another problem that we

found out you want that tips stance to extend to the hepatic vein IVC Junction you do not want it to fall short of the paddock vein IVC Junction much okay much is usually a centimeter or centimeter and a half is it is acceptable

the problem with hepatic veins and this is the same pathology as the good old graft dialysis grafts what is the common sites of dialysis graft narrowing at the venous anastomosis why for this reason it's the same pathogenesis veins whether

it's in your arm for analysis whether it's in your liver or anywhere are designed for low flow low turbidity flow of the blood okay if you subject a vein of any type to high turbot high velocity flow it reacts by thickening its walls

it reacts by new intimal hyperplasia so if you put a big shunt which increases volume and increased flow turbidity in that area in that appear again the hepatic vein reacts by causing new into our plays you actually get a narrowing

of the Phatak vein right distal to the to the to the Patek venous end of the shunt so you need to take it all the way to the Big C to the IVC okay how much time do I have half an hour huh 17 minutes okay

Viator stents is one way let's say you don't have a variety or stent many countries you don't have a virus then what's an alternative do a barre covered stem combination you put a wall stent and then put a covered stance on the

inside okay so put a wall stent a good old-fashioned you know oldie but a goodie is is a 1094 okay you just put a ten nine four Wahl cent which is the go to walls down so I go to stand for tips before Viator

and then put a cover sentence inside whatever it is it's a could be a fluency it could be a could be a vibe on and and do that so that's another alternative for tips we talked about an ace tips as a central straight tips and it's not out

and fishing out in the periphery okay this is an occlusion with a wall stance this is why we use think this is why now we use stent grafts this is complete occlusion of the tips we're injecting contrast this is not the coral vein this

is actually the Billy retreat visit ptc okay that's a big Billy leaked into the into the tips okay and that's why we use covered stance I'm gonna move forward on this in early and early and experienced

people were thinking about the covered

portion actually actually would be occlusive in that paddock veins a lot of people are concerned about that this could be kind of like a but carry you're gonna actually occlude flow in the paddy vein caused thromboses that didn't pan

out at least clinically okay it didn't pan out and that's another advantage of actually accessing very close to the paddock vein IVC junction that's where the biggest vein is so you don't get a lot of occlusive problems okay but

usually clinically it does not pan out so the bigger the hepatic vein the more likely you have a lot of room around your your graft you won't be occlusive to the paddock vein that's more important for for transplants than other

than others I told you it's rare this is actually a very rare case of such that where you actually have a segmental segmental kind of but carry after a tips okay and you know this is actually from a form of venous outflow from the ematic

vein this is a perfusion defect typical it's a wedge right typical perfusion defect in the liver that's how you death so you know this is vascular this is a perfusion problem but you've got hepatic artery readout artery the red arrows

running into the segments and you have portal vein running into the segments so what's the problem it's actually a paddock vein occlusion okay by the stents subclinical no no clinical complaints you let it be

in the patients usually recover okay treat the patients and not the images okay on the other side if you put their tips too deep sometimes you actually get thromboses of the portal vein branch

again you get a call from hepatology you've got portal vein thrombosis is the patient doing okay yes treat the patient and not the images they usually resolve this it's not not a big problem another technical problem

I'm gonna focus mostly on technical for you guys this is a but key area okay and the but carry especially in the acute stage the liver is not like a cirrhotic liver is big liver is actually engorged okay so it's very large usually

your needle is too short to even reach the portal vein okay that's a big problem okay because your access needle is too short for a very large engorged the portal vein so this is as deep as it

goes do I have a see that that do you see that needle tip that's as deep as the needle tip goes okay the portal vein is a good distance away okay luckily this is a co2 porta gram luckily I'm actually in a small branch right

there I just hit it on you know and on this is not the there's not a needle tract this is just luckily hitting it a little branch and on so I'm actually accessing the portal vein and I can do a co2 porta gram here okay

typical inexperienced person would say you know this looks good I'm lucky I'm in a branch but it's a nice smooth curve I'll just pass a wire down and I'll balloon it and I'll put a stent in it's a nice curve and you know so it's my

lucky day I don't need to extend my needle or get a bigger longer needle to reach the portal vein here's the problem with this and this is exactly what this is exactly what this is they pass a wire and it looks beautiful just put a stent

and go home okay here's the problem this is actually the small branch access sites this is actually where you really need to access world vane but your needle is not long enough okay

what we found out is that if you are in a small in a small portal vein no matter how much you balloon it it will come down again and it will be narrow so believe it or not if you go sideways in a portal vein and rip it open with a

balloon it will stay open but if you go down of small portal vein and balloon it open it will always contract down okay so you cannot do a tips simply by ballooning and putting a stent in in this case okay what we do is we actually

denude the vein itself we actually rip it off okay and make it a raw parenchyma and we do that with a Tortola device we literally rip off the paddock the paddock portal sorry the portal vein endothelium and media and adventitia rip

it off make it completely raw as if it's an access as if it's a liver brain coma which is which it is now and then we then we balloon dilates okay rip it off denude it angioplasty it's okay and then put the stent and see that aggression

despite all that aggression of ripping it off it still has an hour kind of an hourglass shape to the to the tips okay that little constraint there that's the hepatic venous access sites this is the parenchymal tract to see nice and open

with a balloon but the but the actual vein that we've been through despite our aggression in actually ripping it off it's still narrowed down but this is as good as it gets okay

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