Create an account and get 3 free clips per day.
Chapters
V-block Assisted Sclerotherapy VBAS NTNT
V-block Assisted Sclerotherapy VBAS NTNT
2016bloodBTG-IMcavalClariVeinClosureFastCovidiendilatedeCloseinjectinjectinglumensMedtronicnoindexptfeResearchsbvsclerotherapySIRV-blockVANISH-2VarithenaVascular InsightsVeClosevenaVenaSealVenefitVVSymQVVT Medical
Overview of PAD & CLI | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
Overview of PAD & CLI | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
arterybloodbotoxchaptercholesterolclaudicationcriticaldiseasefactorsflowintermittentischemialimbpainperfusionperipheralrisksevere
The Ways to Recanalize the Below the Knee Vessels | AVIR CLI Panel
The Ways to Recanalize the Below the Knee Vessels | AVIR CLI Panel
ablationanalogantibioticarteriesarthritisassessaveragebasicallychapterclinicaldissolveemboembolizationembolusinfarctinjectinvestigationalkneelateralmedialmrispainpalpatepatientpatientsprocedurepublishedradiofrequencyrefractoryresorbablescalestudy
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) - Where it's used | Ablations: Cryo, Microwave, & RFA
Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA) - Where it's used | Ablations: Cryo, Microwave, & RFA
ablateablationablationsaugmentationBovie knifecementchapterconjunctioncryoknifekyphoplastyMedtronicmetastaticmicrowavemodalityosteopelvis
Bland Embolization | Interventional Oncology
Bland Embolization | Interventional Oncology
ablationablativeadministeringagentangiogramanteriorbeadsblandbloodceliacchapterchemocompleteelutingembolicembolizationembolizedhcchumerusischemialesionmetastaticnecrosispathologicpatientpedicleperformrehabresectionsegmentsequentiallysupplytherapytumor
Intra Procedure | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
Intra Procedure | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
anesthesiaangiographyartifactassistedbeamchaptercombconedrawsekgelisaembolizationequipmenthcchepatocellularimaginginjectioninterventionalintraoperativemedicalNonenurseoximetrypatientphotopositioningprotectedradiologysedationspecialtiesspecialtystopcocksyringetechnologisttomographytumor
Heat Sink Effect in RFA | Ablations: Cryo, Microwave, & RFA
Heat Sink Effect in RFA | Ablations: Cryo, Microwave, & RFA
ablationbloodchapterheatinfraredportalsinkvessel
PTC/PBD Indications & Contraindications | Biliary Intervention
PTC/PBD Indications & Contraindications | Biliary Intervention
ascitesbariatricbiliarychaptercholecystectomycomplexcontraindicationcystsdiseaseembolizefrequentlylaparoscopicliverpolycysticrelativesurgery
Radiology in Algeria | IR In Algeria, UAE - PAIRS Meeting
Radiology in Algeria | IR In Algeria, UAE - PAIRS Meeting
ablationanesthesiologistcardiologistscenterschapterfulfillhawkinsimplementinginterventioninterventionalperformedperformingprogramradiologistsvascular
Chylothorax | Lymphatic Imaging & Interventions
Chylothorax | Lymphatic Imaging & Interventions
brighamcaudalcenterschaptercoilingcolorcongenitalducteffusionembolizationidiopathicleaklymphaticmajormalformationsmichiganoctreotidepatientspediatricpedspittsburghpleuralstudiessuccesssurgerythoracentesisthoracicthoraxtraumatictreatmenttriglyceridesvulnerable
Claudication vs CLI | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
Claudication vs CLI | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
amputationamputationsangiogramcancerscarolinachapterclaudicationcriticaldiseasefateischemialimbpalliationpatientsspecialiststabletexastreatworse
Algorithm for Treatment | Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
Algorithm for Treatment | Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
balloonbloodcatheterizechaptercoilscontrastgonadalnesterocclusionpelvicrecurrencerefluxsclerosissymptomstreatttlevaricosevaricositiesveinveinsvenavenogramvenous
HCC and IR oncology treatments | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
HCC and IR oncology treatments | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
ablationadvancedadvancingagentalbuminapproacharterialarterybeadsbilirubinbloodcarcinomacatheterchapterchemochildchroniccirrhosiscirrhoticclinicalconsideredCTcurativediabetesdiagnoseddiagnosisdiameterdiseaseeffectiveembolisationembolizationethanolhcchepatichepatic arteryhepatitishepatocellularincidenceincludeinjectedinjectioninterventionallesionslftslivermeasuresmicrospheresmicrowaveMRImultidisciplinaryNoneobesityoncologyoptimaloptionsoutcomespatientspercutaneouspercutaneouslyperformedportalprocedureprotocolradiofrequencyradiologyraterecurrenceresectionriskscoresscreeningserumsurgerysurgicalsurvivalsystemictasteteststherapiestherapytranstransplanttreatmenttumortumorsultrasoundunresectableutilizedvein
The Case that Launched the Cornell PERT (PE Response Team) | Pulmonary Emoblism Interactive Lecture
The Case that Launched the Cornell PERT (PE Response Team) | Pulmonary Emoblism Interactive Lecture
adventitiaangiogramaortaarteryaspiratedbloodcatheterschapterclotdysfunctionFistulafrontalhemorrhagehypotensionhypoxiaintracraniallobelungPE in right main Pulmonary Arteryperfusionpertpigtailpressorspulmonarypulmonary arteryresectionselectivesheathspinsystolictachycardicthrombustpatranscranialtumorventricle
Indirect Angiography | Interventional Oncology
Indirect Angiography | Interventional Oncology
ablateablationablativeaneurysmangioangiographybeamBrachytherapycandidateschapterdefinitivelyembolizationentirehccindirectintentinterdisciplinaryischemiclesionographypatientportalresectionsbrtsurgicaltherapyvein
Work-up for PAE | Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization
Work-up for PAE | Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization
anesthesiaangiogramarteriesaspirinbladdercancercardiacchaptercliniccolordegreeeducateeffectsembolizationfoleyibuprofenipssmedicationmedicationsmetforminMRINonepatientpatientsprobeprocedureprostaterenalscorespasmsymptomstreattypeurinaryurineurologisturologywarfarin
Inclusion Criteria | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
Inclusion Criteria | Transforming from Clinical IR to Clinical Trials with Tirapazamine (TPZ)
ablationcandidateschapterdiagnosisdysfunctionecogembolisationhcclargestlymphnoduleNonepatientsportalpriorradiofrequencyresectionsurgicaltumorvein
Introduction- Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization | Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization
Introduction- Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization | Nursing Management in Prostate Artery Embolization
ablationsallowingarterybasicallycarechapterclinicconsultationsembolizationindicationsNonenursingpatientspractitionersprocessprostatetreatingworkup
MR Angiography | Determining the Endpoints of CLI Interventions
MR Angiography | Determining the Endpoints of CLI Interventions
angiogramanteriorartifactcalcifiedchapterclaudicationdeterminehemoglobiniliacimageinterventionmraMRIocclusionpatientsrecanalizationreperfusiontibialtissuevessels
Cone Beam CT | Interventional Oncology
Cone Beam CT | Interventional Oncology
ablationanatomicangioarteriesarteryartifactbeamchaptercombconecontrastdoseembolicenhancementenhancesesophagealesophagusgastricgastric arteryglucagonhcchepatectomyinfusinglesionliverlysisoncologypatientsegmentstomach
Post-intervention Non-invasive Tests | Determining the Endpoints of CLI Interventions
Post-intervention Non-invasive Tests | Determining the Endpoints of CLI Interventions
abnormalangiogrambasicallybloodbrachialchaptercompressiblecuffsdigitsdiseaseduplexflowfoothealhealinghelpfulincreaseindiceslevellimbmultiplenormalpatientsperfusionpredictivepressurepressurespulserestoringsegmentalsignalskintibialtissueulcervascularvesselvesselsvolumewound
Impact of Social Media on Cases | Twitter Case Files
Impact of Social Media on Cases | Twitter Case Files
ablationablationschapterembolizationfibroidsuddenurologist
IR in Egypt and Ethiopia | AVIR International-IR Sessions at SIR2019 MiddleEast & Africa Focus
IR in Egypt and Ethiopia | AVIR International-IR Sessions at SIR2019 MiddleEast & Africa Focus
ablationsaccessafricaangiographybillarybulkcardiothoracicchaptercheaperconduitscountriescryocryoablationDialysiseconomyegyptelectroporationembolizationendovascularfibroidfibroidsFistulainterventioninterventionalnanonephrologyneurononvascularoncologyportalpracticeradiologyspecialtysurgeonssurgerysurgicallythrombectomytpavascularvisceralworldwide
Clinical Workflow for PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
Clinical Workflow for PET/MRI | PET/MRI: A New Technique to Obtain High Quality Diagnostic Images for Oncology Patients
arrivesbloodchapterchartcheckcontrastdoseflowgadoliniumglucoseimaginginjectinjectedinjectinginjectionmonitorMRINonenursepatientpatientspneumaticpresencepriorradiologistrobescanscannerscanningscreeningworkflow
Renal Ablation | Interventional Oncology
Renal Ablation | Interventional Oncology
ablationcardiomyopathycentimeterchaptereffusionembolizedfamiliallesionmetastaticparenchymalpatientpleuralrenalspleensurgerytolerated
Treatment Case 2 | Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
Treatment Case 2 | Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
chapterembolizationgonadaliliacinternalocclusionvaricositiesveinveinsvenavenous
Results of the US FDA Trial | Pecutaneous Creation of Hemodialysis Fistulas
Results of the US FDA Trial | Pecutaneous Creation of Hemodialysis Fistulas
anastomosisangiogramangioplastyarteryBARDBD EverlinQ (4Fr & 6Fr)brachialcalcifiedcatheterschaptercreatedevicedevicesDialysiselectrodeembolizationembolizeendpointsenergyFistulafistulasflowfrenchmagnetsmaturationofficialpercutaneousperforatorpositionpseudoaneurysmradialradiofrequencysaddlesitssurgeonsurgicallyulnarveinvena
Rationale for Geniculate Artery Embolization- Knee | Geniculate Artery Embolization for Arthritic Pain Why How & Results
Rationale for Geniculate Artery Embolization- Knee | Geniculate Artery Embolization for Arthritic Pain Why How & Results
antibioticarteryarthritisbiopsybloodchapterclinicalcolorcytokinesdegenerativedissolveemboembolisationembolizationembolushospitalizationsincreasedinflammationinflammatoryinjectinjectionskneeleadsneurovascularnsaidnsaidsosteoarthritispainpatientspublishedresorbablerheumatologyshoulderslidessynovialvesselvessels
PAD/CLI Diagnosis | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
PAD/CLI Diagnosis | CLI: Cause and Diagnosis
amputationangiogramanklearterialarterybiphasicbloodchapterclassificationclaudicationcolorcriticaldiabetesdiagnosisdiscomfortdiseasedopplerfootischemiaMRIpainpatientpatientsperipheralpredictpulsepulsesrutherfordsavetreatmentulcerultrasoundwaveformwoundwounds
Massive PE Case | Massive Pulmonary Emoblism
Massive PE Case | Massive Pulmonary Emoblism
anticoagulatedbloodbuttoncannulacavachaptercontrastfibrillationhearthypercoagulablehypotensivehypoxicinjectionliterspressorspressurepulmonarysaturationsignsystemicTheraputically anticoagulatedtherapythrombectomytpavena
Nodal Lymphangiography | Lymphatic Imaging & Interventions
Nodal Lymphangiography | Lymphatic Imaging & Interventions
angiographycenterscentimeterchapterductembolizationinjectinginjectionluerlymphlymphaticsneedlenodenodespropofolsyringesthoracictubing
Transcript

ok vblock assistant sclerotherapy always

called the bass another non-thermal non-domestic not available in the u.s. it's think of it as an inverted vena caval filter with a PTFE coding it's basically a plug that you put up at the subpoena formal junction and then

there's a dual catheter system here that as you inject sclerosis and liquids frozen it sucks blood out through the other luminous two lumens here so you're injecting a collapse Fame compared to injecting a dilated vein with blood in

it and it's a disposable system this is it being done you inject one syringe and the blood gets sucked out of the other one and you pull back relatively quickly as Pope a crate is really not such a big deal very early things

Ralph come back in Germany has the longest experience with this there's some experience in Israel actually went in and did four cases with him it's very relatively simple to do so in conclusion

peripheral artery disease affects up to 12 million peopl amputations occur yearly do a peripheral artery disease specifically critical

limb ischemia that is almost certainly way more than should be done up to two million people have critical limb ischemia so how do patients present when they have PA d in general okay there's really one of two presentations general

categories the first thing is intermittent claudication so Claude occation means I walk and I get pain okay when I stop walking the pain goes away you also have critical limb ischemia

which we call CLI CLI is such severe peripheral artery disease that you actually a foot and leg pain at rest in other words your blood flow is so bad that even at rest you don't have enough perfusion to go to

your foot and you have a scheming pain or your blood flow is so bad that you can't heal a sore or an ulcer okay so forget walking these are the this is the most severe form of peripheral artery disease

okay so again Kumar mentioned this before peripheral artery disease is like a highway if you and I say this a million times a day my pas are so sick of hearing it if you block a highway traffic can't get through and so it has

to go through detours when you go through detours you're always slower things are never as efficient and you back up that's exactly what happens here plaque builds up in the artery blood flow can't get through and so you can't

get to where you're going there's the highway analogy a key point and again I hear this all the time you know the patient came in with a wound but it's weird they never had claudication so maybe this isn't arterial wrong

intermittent claudication does not need to come before critical limb ischemia in other words many patients their first presentation is critical of ischemia so they'll never know that PA D they never have what you know pain when they walk

their first presentation is a potentially severe morbid and mortal one so what are the risks factors for PID it's everything we think about smoking obviously is a big one high blood pressure cholesterol diabetes obesity

physical activity well there's other risk factors family history and age so my question is what's the difference between these two risk factors what there's been these risk factors and these risk factors

one is changeable the other is not as much as we try with Botox or Juvederm or whatever it is we can't change our age and as much as we try we can't change our family history but we can change smoking and cholesterol and do all the

things that we can do and it's not easy but it can be done I will say a special

they travel together so that's what leads to the increased pain and sensitivity so in the knee there have been studies like 2015 we published that study on 13 patients with 24 month follow-up for knee embolization for

bleeding which you may have seen very commonly in your institution but dr. Okun Oh in 2015 published that article on the bottom left 14 patients where he did embolization in the knee for people with arthritis he actually used an

antibiotic not imposing EMBO sphere and any other particle he did use embolus for in a couple patients sorry EMBO zine in a couple of patients but mainly used in antibiotic so many of you know if antibiotics are like crystalline

substances they're like salt so you can't inject them in arteries that's why I have to go into IVs so they use this in Japan to inject and then dissolve so they go into the artery they dissolve and they're resorbable so they cause a

like a light and Baalak effect and then they go away he found that these patients had a decrease in pain after doing knee embolization subsequently he published a paper on 72 patients 95 needs in which he had an

excellent clinical success clinical success was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in knee pain so they had more than 50% reduction in knee pain in 86 percent of the patients at two years 79 percent of these patients still had

knee pain relief that's very impressive results for a procedure which basically takes in about 45 minutes to an hour so we designed a u.s. clinical study we got an investigational device exemption actually Julie's our clinical research

coordinator for this study and these are the inclusion exclusion criteria we basically excluded patients who have rheumatoid arthritis previous surgery and you had to have moderate or severe pain so greater than 50 means basically

greater than five out of ten on a pain scale we use a pain scale of 0 to 100 because it allows you to delineate pain a little bit better and you had to be refractory to something so you had to fail medications injections

radiofrequency ablation you had to fail some other treatment we followed these patients for six months and we got x-rays and MRIs before and then we got MRIs at one month to assess for if there was any non-target embolization likes a

bone infarct after this procedure these are the clinical scales we use to assess they're not really so important as much as it is we're trying to track pain and we're trying to check disability so one is the VA s or visual analog score and

on right is the Womack scale so patients fill this out and you can assess how disabled they are from their knee pain it assesses their function their stiffness and their pain it's a little

bit limiting because of course most patients have bilateral knee pain so we try and assess someone's function and you've improved one knee sometimes them walking up a flight of stairs may not improve significantly but their pain may

improve significantly in that knee when we did our patients these were the baseline demographics and our patients the average age was 65 and you see here the average BMI in our patients is 35 so this is on board or class 1 class 2

obesity if you look at the Japanese study the BMI in that patient that doctor okano had published the average BMI and their patient population was 25 so it gives you a big difference in the patient population we're treating and

that may impact their results how do we actually do the procedure so we palpate the knee and we feel for where the pain is so that's why we have these blue circles on there so we basically palpate the knee and figure

out is the pain medial lateral superior inferior and then we target those two Nicollet arteries and as depicted on this image there are basically 6 to Nicollet arteries that we look for 3 on the medial side 3 on the lateral side

once we know where they have pain we only go there so we're not going to treat the whole knee so people come in and say my whole knee hurts they're not really going to be a good candidate for this procedure you want focal synovitis

or inflammation which is what we're looking for and most people have medial and Lee pain but there are a small subset of patients of lateral pain so this is an example patient from our study says patient had an MRI beforehand

about RF a is that it was the first

ablation that we came up with all those that used it was first used in 1981 and it was really for the first liver ablation that we did RFA if any of you know about a Bovie knife the idea is the same the modality works the same as a

Bovie knife and still the main modality used in many parts of the world in the United States a lot of people will use it in certain areas but it's it's being slowly replaced by microwave ablation with time so as I mentioned some areas

are still using a fair amount of RF aimost or not I can honestly say that I haven't used much RF a at all I was sort of born into the generation of cryo and microwave places where we do use it or very commonly our Nerada meas for pain

control as well as spine ablations if any of you do the osteo cool system with Medtronic will do kyphoplasty in conjunction with an ablation that would be RFA and then Bowden oblations in conjunction with cement organizations

elsewhere right so in the pelvis if there's metastatic disease to the pelvis and you're going to ablate the lesion and then to cement augmentation the I

we're gonna move on to embolization there a couple different categories of embolization bland embolization is when

you just administering something that is choking off the blood supply to the tumor and that's how it's going to exert its effect here's a patient with a very large metastatic renal cell lesion to the humerus this is it on MRI this is it

per angiogram and this patient was opposed to undergo resection so we bland embolized it to reduce bleeding and I chose this one here because we used sequentially sized particles ranging from 100 to 200 all

the way up to 700 and you can actually if you look closely can see sort of beads stacked up in the vessel but that's all that it's doing it's just reducing the blood supply basically creating a stroke within the tumor that

works a fair amount of time and actually an HCC some folks believe that it were very similar to keep embolization which is where at you're administering a chemo embolic agent that is either l'p hi doll with the chemo agent suspended within it

or drug eluting beads the the Chinese have done some randomized studies on whether or not you can also put alcohol in the pie at all and that's something we've adopted in our practice too so anything that essentially is a chemical

outside of a bland agent can be considered a key mobilization so here's a large segment eight HCC we've all been here before we'll be seeing common femoral angiogram a selective celiac run you can make sure

the portals open in that segment find the anterior division pedicle it's going to it select it and this is after drug living bead embolization so this is a nice immediate response at one month a little bit of gas that's expected to be

within there however this patient had a 70% necrosis so it wasn't actually complete cell death and the reason is it's very hard to get to the absolute periphery of the blood supply to the tumor it is able to rehab just like a

stroke can rehab from collateral blood supply so what happens when you have a lesion like this one it's kind of right next to the cod a little bit difficult to see I can't see with ultrasound or CT well you can go in and tag it with lip

Idol and it's much more conspicuous you can perform what we call dual therapy or combination therapy where you perform a microwave ablation you can see the gas leaving the tumor and this is what it looks like afterwards this patient went

to transplant and this was a complete pathologic necrosis so you do need the concept of something that's ablative very frequently to achieve that complete pathologic necrosis rates very hard to do that with ischemia or chemotherapy

alone so what do you do we have a

finally intraoperative considerations positioning for comb bean tpz photo

sensitivity EKG and lab draws and noting the time of tpz injection so i wanted to say a little bit about comb beam all right who has comb beam at their facility just a few less okay comb beam is medical imaging technique consisting

of x-ray computed tomography where the x-rays are divergent forming a cone the scanning software collects the data and reconstructs it producing what is termed a digital volume composed of three dimensional voxels of anatomical data

that can then be manipulated and visualized with specialized software on the left is a standard floral image and on the right is the comb beam so the red shows the vascular angiography the blue is a tumor and the yellow is a feeding

artery to the term or so dr. Abuja lays a B today is heavily involved with research so the procedure room with Combee was exclusively constructed for her so positioning for comb beam I believe

to be the bigger challenge initially comb being requires the patient to have their arms up high and using comb beam technology increases the procedural time it would be difficult for the patients to maintain that position and keep still

without anesthesia we started clinical trials with nurse assisted moderate sedation and soon learned it was very difficult the majority of our HCC embolization --zz are done with with sedation but we're

now using anesthesia for all of it so the lead in this case was Tom the radiology tech which assisted with the placement of the anesthesia equipment and patient positioning our anesthesia personnel are not only out of their

comfort zone in the I are sweet but unfamiliar with tpz trial and how the comb beam equipment rotates completely around the patient the patient is wearing two sets of leads one for anesthesia and the other for research

the leads are radio translucent to reduce artifact and imaging keeping the lid lid lead in the department took some getting used to one set got thrown away one set was found up in the ICU one set was on the

anesthesia equipment it was hard keeping track of our special equipment there so the pulse oximetry and blood pressure are on the lower extremities for cone beam again to avoid artifact and imaging when we first

started using cone beam the nursing staff administering sedation were disconnecting patients from monitoring so there were short interruptions with viewing vital signs it became risky and time-consuming to do

so during the procedure one set of EKGs triplicates are done just prior to tpz injection so the treat the EKG triplicates are basically they're two minutes apart in sets of three and lastly having to keep the tpz in a brown

bag and protected from light during the transfer nurse to position there's the photo on the left upper corner doctor busy day basically draws a tpz through a three-way stopcock under a sterile towel

while the nurse keeps the syringe in the brown bag poking a hole in the bag just to NIF to just enough to expose the tip of the syringe and attach it to the three-way this way the tpz is protected from light these reminder adjustments

however they were difficult from the standard and it took time for all the nurses and techs to adjust all right so this here is just a group photo Tom I've got Tyler on the right Thanh our technologist and ELISA and myself so I

thought this was a good photo to represent radiology many specialties consult two IR but it just isn't quite known yet by the general population and surprisingly by the medical staff as well there is a quote by dr. Rosa be

published quote the reason the public doesn't quite understand is we deal with so many disease entities and so many body parts it's hard to brand us unquote so I don't know if you guys were aware but interventional radiology is now its

own medical specialty so hepatocellular carcinoma is a primary malignancy of the liver and now the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with over

ablation also has a little disadvantage than that I don't know if you folks have heard of heat sink but the idea is that

if you put the probe immediately adjacent to a blood vessel that blood vessel is gonna suck the temperature away and so that you cannot oblate around blood vessels particularly well because the blood flow rate since

you just washes it out it's called heat sink effect and this is essentially showing infrared image of of an ablation how if you put a vessel nearby it stops the ablation now that can actually be used as an advantage depending on where

you're doing an ablation but truthfully if you're doing it in the liver and you're next to the portal vein or something like that it becomes a bit of a problem and any blood vessel greater than three millimeters is our concern so

no question why would we do it so the

the usually when there's enteric surgery frequently GI is unable to go once the bowel has been rehook tup through a either Worple procedure or bariatric surgeries where they essentially disconnect the direct communication with

RO mouth so once summons has the surgery there's no question almost IR is always consulted and frequently the only way and and we certainly deal with many ways of the dressing biliary disease not just therapeutic but also diagnostic and

staging and so like I said reduce a lot of scopes now there's sort of no reason you could never do a Balu intervention and it sort of said that ascites and frequently should be a relative contraindication we don't really find

that certainly you can embolize your way out of access into the brewery systems i think this is a relative and every now and then when you have vast numbers of cysts in the liver and polycystic liver disease can't be a barrier to performing

it and we made sometimes then refer those so there's no question sometimes you may want to think about Jia should taking over if they underlaid it but frequently in fact at most of our believe cases are transferred in as

complex and transfers into our hospital are ones with underlay the bill Redux mainly misadventure after lap laparoscopic cholecystectomy or just overall a really complex balloon save case there's frequently transactions or

massive leaks so underlaid is really something we deal with on a daily basis when should you not do it it's very rare

good afternoon everyone so I have the big task about talk about IR in Algeria and UAE and couple words about the past meeting so my name is Hoshino bada I'm intervention ideologies I joined the unit in Abu Dhabi almost 5 years ago so I think everybody's familiar now with

the African continent so Algeria between Morocco and Tunisia so it's a bit difficult or bother the iron algea because it's a very very early stage and these couple numbers give you an idea about the the landscape

readiness came health care system over there we have about 850 CT scanners 250 MRI for about 144 hundred one thousand four hundred forty thousand radiologists if you compare between Morocco they have almost 700 and 800 in Tunisia and about

2700 radiographers but only twelve IR people two of them performing your IR as well so one of the main issue it is not as social IR curriculum over there and there's not even a chapter of any intervention society that can help to

promote as a platform to promote the IR program however on the other hand they have a very dynamic and very active society of radiology and actually they are performing a really lot of work by doing a lot of meetings worktop hands-on

workshop all over the year all over the year absolutely and in the last four or five years they also introduced IR in their in their meetings and so exposed to the the young residents and and radiologists it triggers as some some

momentum about IR over there and so some of them went to in Europe together had trained fellowship and they came back to our Jaso even there's a small number of IR over there they are only fully trained in Europe with a with a good

quality so but of course the number is very small so a lack of IR that means some some people have to do the work and the classic thing happens like the Ignacio is going to perform some of the procedure which means biopsies drainages

or the video intervention and some somehow some ablation therapies in very limited centers and if you look at the vascular access or the Lions barakatuh performed by almost everybody radiologists cardiologists surgeons even

anesthesiologist there's not enough people to do in a foursome it's ornery Rogers doing the first time it's the only area when it's 100% I would say imaging people is definitely regarding Western intervention from diagnostic

tool to biopsy to intervention so if you look at the vascular interventional quite similar what well said in in in Egypt so the vascular stuff is doing by IR however all the outer condition that performs swiftly by vascular surgeon but

nowadays summer some changes because they are facing some issues essentially though they do send graft they don't have to do they don't know how to deal with the unduly so there's more and more kind of through there I'll reconsider

the need for collaboration with IR and they start to really have some some bridge all together to fulfill the complication and issue they might and control in their practice so the only optimistic things now in Algeria is that

there is definitely a big Werner's at the level of the old age about creating a really implementing a training program for IR and the actually they are trying really to to initiate and start that so working progress that the Society of

international urology over there so there is hope about the future in terms of implementing this type of program and before moving into the UAE just a small comment I know you do a co2 injection in your daily practice just give you an

idea about that so this was pioneered by a giant team in the late 60s and early 70s so this is this work was performed a couple years before the work of Hawkins actually Hawkins always reference the Algerian team about about that so now we

move to the UAE

where the rubber hits the road is how we and what we do with this and the first

entity that we started treating with skyla thorax and what kyla thorax is basically a milky pleural effusion you guys I'm sure I've seen this you're doing a thoracentesis on a the food that comes out actually pretty

thick it's not clear it's almost this milky color the patients are usually fairly ill they've had Safa geo surgery lung cancer surgery heart surgery etc we test the fluids for triglycerides and chylomicrons and if that's positive then

we know it's a kind of thorax historically these patients would be treated by not being fed given TPN and maybe octreotide they'd maybe go to surgery if they received no treatment they had 50% of them died six to 12

weeks later if they went to surgery 12 percent of them died if they went to surgery 40% of them had major complications so you can see if this was a major opportunity for us to step in and really change the outcome for these

patients as I said Constantine Koch did the first procedures on this but I'll show you what it looks like this is doing a central and fangy Graham and we're serial images you see that leak accumulating on the right side the

right pleural space we have our wire and catheter in all ready and all we're gonna do is we're gonna start coiling up at the area across the leak and put more coils and a little bit of glue at the end when we do that we have a very high

success rate you see four major studies that have been published from 2004 to the present you see the first ones doctor copes major study 42 patients from UPenn the second one is also from UPenn 109 patients the next ones from my

Hospital Brigham and Women's where I did my training and then the last ones from Pittsburgh there have been subsequent studies as well but this included over 400 patients between these there was a meta-analysis in jvi our last year

showing that the lymphatic interventions for Kyle thorax pretty successful looking even at old technology that were used for the embolization zhh 400 patients nine studies 80% success rate across all these different centers I

would say in experienced hands a success rate exceeds 95% for traumatic Kyllo thorax at the present so we know that this is a pretty respectable for the treatment of Kyle of thorax a CR has some guidelines out for how the thorax

treatment as well encourage you to take a look at them it can break it down between traumatic and non traumatic caudal thorax and gives you some recommendations of how to approach it

pediatric catholic's is a little bit slower to treat generally everything in peds is a little bit slow to be adopted we obviously want to be very careful with our most vulnerable patients so the types of disorders that pediatric

patients are slightly different because they can have congenital or idiopathic I authorities it can be from lymphatic malformations or from different syndromes it certainly be from congenital heart surgeries and other

issues that they may have going on there have been several reports published at our institution University of Michigan we publish the largest cohort of pediatric patients and it was only eleven but ultimately we showed that

thoracic duct embolization was just as effective just as safe in this population our youngest kid was only two weeks old our smallest kid was two kilograms so a very vulnerable very small structures but you can still do

and still have fantastic outcomes for

I would like to convince you that

claudication is a different disease than critical limb ischemia even though it's the same on you're lying principle it's a different disease and here's why what is the fate of a Claude account so in five years

most Claude Akins are stable now I'm not saying they're living without pain I'm not trying to diminish their symptoms they may say look I can I can't live my life because I'm you know it hurts to walk from here to there and I'm sorry

but at the end of the day most of them will be stable they're not gonna dot they're not gonna get worse and they're not gonna have an amputation only a small percentage progress to critical of ischemia now let's look at the fate of a

critical limb ischemia patient in one year the majority are either dead or have another amputation have a bilateral heba have lost one of their legs and a lot of them have lost both their legs and so this is a serious mortal morbid

disease in fact if you look at it compared to some cancers critical of ischemia has a worse overall survival than a lot of common cancers and when I was trained my mentor used to say CLI critical mass Kimia is cancer by another

name we just have to treat it like palliation okay and that becomes important the way we treat things so when I treat a Claddagh Kent I am really looking toward their entire life you know is this treatment worth it I don't

want to make you worse with a critical limb ischemia patient I am all hands on deck we're gonna do everything we can and why every 20 seconds a lower limb is lost to diabetes patients with rest pain or gangrene really need to see a

specialist I've asked your specialist not any vascular specialist a basket specialist who knows how to do critical an ischemia okay so I'm from North Carolina or I live in North Carolina now cardiovascular disease rates were you

know obviously toward toward the south hi here's the amputation rates we are right there in the amputation belt if you look at the dark blue they sort of along the south and into Texas and we're all in the amputation belt right now

because we're all in Texas and so we do way way too many amputations sadly over 50% of patients who have an amputation never had an angiogram so in other words that doesn't mean someone tried and failed which is at least respectable you

know at least tried it's we never looked we never even bothered now there's a lot of amputations that should if someone's septic and dying or sure or limbs unsalvageable of course yeah you don't just take the like I understand

that but that's not 50% that is a lot of patients who no-one's even bother looking so how do we make the diagnosis

typical symptoms if you want to hit the play on this I think this is one we've probably already seen but it's it's the the algorithm that I go through for treatment so we do my renal vena Graham

there we go it's classic definitely has reflux and so next I will selectively catheterize the gonadal vein and here you see very large pelvic varicosities and so my standard is to actually treat the varicose veins with a sclerostin

much like I would sclerosis a varicose vein in the leg and there's a few reasons that I do that and so here's how I do it I'll put an occlusion blown up you see the picture on the left of the screen has an occlusion balloon it's the

same occlusion balloon we use for a tips procedure and I'll temporarily block the gonadal vein and fill up the system or the varicosities with contrast so that I get a sense for the volume of sclerosis and I would use then the picture on the

right is a venogram after I've injected the sclerostin so I've evaluated the volume and then I've replaced all that contrast by forcing it through the system to drain out the pelvic veins and filling the varicosities with

soldier column I do that because I believe and there's no data to prove it that it helps prevent superficial phlebitis in those varicosities so if we're just gonna block off the gonna dull vein then we have stagnant blood in

all the pelvic varicosities and stating that blood wants to clot and when blood clots on its own it'll stretch and expand the vein and cause pain and so in my own personal experience that has created a little bit worse post

procedural symptoms for patients compared to the patients that I use so TRADOC all to actually treat the varicosities so that's what I start out with and then since I'm kind of an old-fashioned guy I still go with the

coils and so I coiled the whole going a ttle vein and you can use sort of whatever you want you know that's the simplest thing for me are using nester coiours coils and and fill it up some people use the long detachable shaping

coils kind of an expensive way to do it if it saves you radiation then then that's that's one of the reasons to do it but the point is in in the venous system you have to be able to and I show this slide because you can see a

collateral vein or at least a branch there a confluence point that we've coiled off too if you do not treat the entire length there's a there's a lot higher chance for recurrence and veins have a way to find their way around if

they can communicate back up then patient gets recurrent symptoms and that can happen in about ten percent of cases so in order to prevent that you treat the whole gun out of vein and that's sort of why I think some people like to

use liquid sclerosis because then they will be able to sort of profuse all those branch points that would have a chance for recurrence case number two

today's objectives I'll start with reviewing hepatocellular carcinoma HCC

and the current treatment options I'll share the protocol inclusion and exclusion criteria and I will discuss the research treatment protocol briefly and next transitioning to research the preparation taken in the department with

staff members for trial lastly I will talk about what's involved intraoperatively from a nursing standpoint so hepatocellular carcinoma HCC is the most common primary liver manely malignancy and is a leading cause

of cancer-related deaths worldwide cirrhosis is a condition in which there is scarring to the liver causing permanent damage chronic medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus and obesity lead to chronic liver disease

obesity is a risk factor to diabetes and diabetes directly affects the liver because of the essential role the liver plays in glucose metabolism both cirrhosis and chronic liver disease remain the most important risk factor

for the development of HCC a which viral hepatitis and excessive alcohol intake are the leading risk factors of cirrhosis non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis which is nash our

conditions in which fat builds up in your liver thus having inflammation and liver cell damage along with fat in your liver these are other risk factors for HCC the incidence of HCC will continue to escalate as hepatitis C and obesity

become more prevalent in the United States so unfortunately the diagnosis of HCC is too often made with advanced liver disease when patients have become symptomatic and have some degree of

liver impairment at this late stage there is virtually no effective treatment that would improve survival in addition the morbidity associated with therapies unacceptably high modalities available for HCC screening include both

radiographic tests and serological markers radiological tests commonly used for surveillance include ultra sonography multi-phase CT and MRI with contrast ultrasound has historically been utilized to identify intrahepatic

lesions since the early 1980s both the photograph above shows a cirrhotic liver versus a normal liver there are visible differences in the portal and hepatic veins between the cirrhotic liver when compared to the non cirrhotic liver so

AFP alpha-fetoprotein has been used as a serum marker for the detection of HCC an AFP level of less than 10 is normal for adults an extremely high level of AFP in your blood greater than 500 could be a sign of liver tumors liver function

tests or lfts look at the part of your liver that is not affected by cancer to see how well your liver is working the lfts will be considered for diagnosis and determining the stage of HCC the tests look for levels of certain

substance in your blood such as bilirubin albumin ALP ast alt and GGT despite advances in prevention techniques screening and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment incidence and mortality

continue to rise so treatment options for HCC can be divided into three categories surgical options non-surgical options and systemic therapy patients are screened diagnosed and treated accordingly of

these three options interventional radiologists offer the non-surgical approach which include trans arterial embolisation percutaneous ethanol injection radiofrequency ablation and microwave ablation so I want to talk

about the child pu classification the child pious core consists of five clinical measures and is used to assess the prognosis of liver disease and cirrhosis including the required strength of treatment and necessity of

liver transplant the child piu score was originally developed in 1973 to predict surgical outcomes in patients presenting with bleeding esophageal varices today it continues to provide a forecast of the increased increasing severity of

your liver disease and you're expected survival rate the Chao few score is determined by scoring five clinical measures of liver disease the five clinical measures are total bilirubin serum albumin prothrombin time ascites

and hepatic encephalopathy once scores are available in each of the five clinical measures all scores are added and the result is a child piu score their interpretation of the clinical measure is as follows so Class A would

be five to six points lease liver disease with one to five year survival weight at 95 percent Class B seven to nine points moderately severe liver disease one to five year survival rate at seventy five percent and Class C ten

to fifteen points most severe liver disease one to five year survival rate at fifty percent so which child pew scores do I our patients fall into for a research with the CPC and the majority of the HCC child pew scores a and B

seven with the survival rate of one to five years for 95% the best outcomes are achieved when patients are carefully selected for each treatment option regardless of the treatment approach

patients with HCC require a multidisciplinary approach to care to ensure optimal outcomes what we refer to as tumor board tumor board are meetings where specialists from surgery medical oncology radiation oncology

interventional radiology and others collaboratively review a patient's condition and determine the best treatment plan through this multidisciplinary approach patients have access to a diverse team of experts

instead of relying on a single opinion each specialty will have unique contributions to ensure optimal long term outcomes for patients with HCC so there are various algorithms for HCC treatment I actually have one on top of

the other there just to show you that if you're interested in the process you can look it up it's there's a few out there all right so how are the patients selected for treatment like I said tumor board and moving on now to the surgical

options there are two surgical options liver resection and liver transplant surgical resection is currently considered to be the definitive treatment for HCC and the only one that offers the prospect of cure or at least

long-term survival however most patients have unresectable disease at presentation because of poor liver function the overall resect ability rate for HCC is only 10 to 25 percent and even among those who undergo surgical

resection with curative intent there is a recurrence rate of it to 80% at five years post resection survival rates are in the range of 80 to 92% at one year sixty-one to 86 three years and 41 to 74 at five years

the most common sight of post resection recurrence is a remaining liver for patients who are not surgically resectable liver transplant is the only other potentially curative option virtually all patients who are

considered for liver transplant are unresectable because of the degree of underlying liver dysfunction rather than tumor extent down staging using local regional therapies can also be used to increase eligibility for orthotopic

liver transplant while on the transplant list patients disease progress and meeting criteria gets complicated so patients on the transplant list are and do get some other therapies

which I will later discuss so we're surgical resection is not possible for poor liver function liver transplant is a treatment of choice prior to 2008 no systemic therapy was available that demonstrated an improvement in survival

with the publication of two randomized placebo-controlled phase 3 trials the oral multi targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib has become the new standard of treatment for advanced HCC with an increased median survival from

seven point nine months and the placebo group to ten point seven months in the treatment group systemic therapy can be difficult to tolerate because of the side effects dose reduction or treatment interruption is often needed

despite the side-effects treatment is recommended and to be continued into a progression of the tumor is demonstrated the majority of diagnosed patients with HCC present with advanced disease oral therapy has taken two pills twice daily

equaling 400 milligrams B ID so interventional radiology it's like surgery only magic so I I always think about this when patients come in and pre-op beam and they think they're having surgery you know it's well a lot

of benefits to ir what we're doing so interventional radiology is where the magic happens and non-surgical approach procedures are performed percutaneous local ablation include ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation microwave

ablation is utilized both percutaneously and intraoperatively and lastly there is trans arterial embolisation which depending on the embolization agent can either be chemo bland or radioisotopes percutaneous ethanol injection known as

Pei has a long track record and is very effective in destroying HCC tumors that are less than or equal to 2 centimeters in diameter performed under percutaneous ultrasound guidance a needle is placed into the tumor and absolute alcohol is

injected over recent years radiofrequency ablation referred to as RFA has largely replaced Pei at most centres RFA's also performed percutaneously advancing a specially designed electrode into the tumor and

applying radiofrequency energy to generate a zone of thermal destruction that encompasses the tumor and a 1 centimeter margarine surrounding liver RFA is thus preferable to ethanol injection for patients with solitary

tumors 2 to 4 centimeters in size for tumors smaller than 4 centimeters RFA can achieve initial complete response rates of over 90% in microwave ablation MWA microwaves are created from the needle to create small

regionals regions of heat the heat destroy the liver cancer cells RFA and microwave are effective treatment options for patients who might have difficulty with surgery or those whose tumors are less than one and a half inch

in diameter the success rate for completely eliminating small liver tumors is greater than 85% so can I get a show of hands from the audience on who what facilities are doing chemo embolization everybody pretty much are

you guys doing them next to the gentleman yeah okay so this is gonna be a boring review here alright so trans arterial embolisation a minimally invasive procedure performed to restrict to tumors blood supply it is performed

by advancing and angiography catheter into the branches of the hepatic artery supplying the tumor and injecting an agent mixed with orally contrast followed by a cluding agent known as beads the beads which range from 100 to

300 micrometers in diameter are carried by the circulation into the terminal hepatic arterioles where they lodge and include the vessel resulting in the schema tumor necrosis the procedure is done using moderate sedation patients

are monitored for 23 hours or less for pain and post embolization syndrome trans arterial chemo embolization thus is where the chemo therapeutic agent mixed with beads is injected to the tumor

these particles both blocked the blood supply and induced cytotoxicity attacking the tumor in several ways taste is the treatment of choice when the tumor is greater than four centimeters or there are multiple

lesions within the liver taste takes advantage of the fact that while the liver is refused by both the portal vein and the hepatic artery HCC survives its blood supply almost entirely hepatic artery tastes has been shown to

prolong survival in patients with intermediate stage HCC and objective responses were observed in the majority of patients tear trans arterial radioembolisation is a form of catheter directed internal radiation that

delivers small microspheres with Radio isotopes directly into the tumor y9t microspheres are administered and a procedure similar to taste the procedure has been shown to be safe and effective in cirrhotic patients with HCC the side

effects are usually well title tolerated one major advantage of y9t over taste is that it is indicated in the case of portal vein neoplastic thrombosis while taste traditionally has been considered a contraindication all right so there's

let me show you a case of massive PE

this launched our pert pert PE response team 30 year-old man transcranial resection of a pituitary tumor post-op seizures intracranial frontal lobe hemorrhage okay so after his brain surgery developed a frontal lobe

hemorrhage and of course few days after that developed hypotension and hypoxia and was found to have a PE and this is what the PE look like so I'll go back to this one that's clot in the IVC right there and

that's clot in the right main pulmonary artery on this side clot in the IVC clot in the right main pulmonary artery systolic blood pressure was around 90 millimeters of mercury for about an hour he was getting more altered tachycardic

he was in the 120s at this point we realized he was not going the right direction for some reason the surgeon didn't want to touch him still to this day not sure why but that was the case he was brought to the ir suite and I had

a great Mickey attending who came with him and decided to start him on pressors and basically treat him like an ICU patient while I was trying to get rid of his thrombus so it came from the neck because I was conscious of this clot in

the IVC and I didn't want to dislodge it as I took my catheters past it and you see the Selective pulmonary and on selective pulmonary angiogram here and there's some profusion to the left lung and basically none to the right lung

take a sheath out to the right side and do an injection that you see all this cast of thrombus you really see no pulmonary perfusion here you can understand why at this point this man is not doing well what I did at this point

was give a little bit of TPA took a pigtail started trying to spin it through aspirated a little bit wasn't getting anywhere he was actually getting worse I was starting to feel very very nervous I had remembered for my AV

fistula work that there was this thing called the cleaner I don't have any stake in the company but I said you know I don't have a lot to lose here and I thought maybe this would be better than me trying to spin a pigtail through

the clock so the important thing about the cleaners it does not go over a wire so you have to take the sheet out then take out the wire then put the cleaner through that sheath and withdraw the sheath

you can't bareback it especially in the pulmonary circulation the case reports are poking through the pulmonary artery and causing massive hemorrhage and the pulmonary artery does not have an adventitia which is the outer layer just

a little bit thinner than your average artery okay so activated it deployed it and you started to get better and this is what it looked like at the end now this bonus question does somebody see anything on this this picture here that

made me very happy on this side this picture here that made me feel like hey we're getting somewhere I'm sorry the aorta the aorta you start to see the aorta exactly and that that was something I was not seen before the

point being that even though this doesn't look that good in terms of your final image the fact that you see filling in the aorta and mine it might have been some of the stuff I had done earlier I can't I can't pinpoint which

of the interventions actually worked but that's what I'm looking for I'm looking for aortic blood flow because now I've got a hole in that in that clot that's getting blood flow to the left ventricle which starts to reverse that RV

dysfunction that we were concerned about make sure I'm okay with time so we'll

to talk about is indirect angiography this is kind of a neat trick to suggest to your intervention list as a problem solver we were asked to ablate this lesion and it looked kind of funny this patient had a resection for HCC they

thought this was a recurrence so we bring the comb beam CT and we do an angio and it doesn't enhance so this is an image here of indirect port ography so what you can do is an SMA run and see at which point along the

run do you pacify the portal vein and you just set up your cone beam CT for that time so you just repeat your injection and now your pacifying the entire portal vein even though you haven't selected it and what to show

well this was a portal aneurysm after resection with a little bit of clot in it the patient went on some aspirin and it resolved in three months so back to our first patient what do you do for someone who has HCC that's invading the

heart this patient underwent 2y 90s bland embolization microwave ablation chemotherapy and SBRT and he's an eight-year survivor so it's one of those things where certainly with the correct patient selection you can find the right

things to do for someone I think that usually our best results come from our interdisciplinary consensus in terms of trying to use the unique advantages that individual therapies have and IO is just one of those but this is an important

lesson to our whole group that you know a lot of times you get your best results when you use things like a team approach so in summary there are applications to IO prior to surgery to make people surgical candidates there are definitive

treatments ie your cancer will be treated definitively with curative intent a lot of times we can save when people have tried cure intent and weren't able to and obviously to palliate folks to try to buy them time

and quality of life thermal ablation is safe and effective for small lesions but it's limited by the adjacent anatomy y9t is not an ischemic therapy it's an ablative therapy you're putting small ablative radioactive particles within

the lesion and just using the blood supply as a conduit for your brachytherapy and you can use this as a new admin application to make people safer surgical candidates when you apply to the entire ride a panic globe

thanks everyone appreciate it [Applause] [Music]

so we're just gonna like hop over to the clinic side and kind of discuss how we work up or what are the things we look for when we see the patients in clinic

so a lot of patients are referred to us by urologist so we have to have a urology on board to to better take care of this patient we can't treat this patient you know by ourselves so a lot of patients are referred to us by our

neurology team if they don't have a urologist we have to refer to them to erosions first before we can even work them up or PAE so we won't make sure that patient you know doesn't have any underlying cancer that we know of so we

want to make sure that we check their PSA levels because this high high patient can ask actually I predict a decent progression and actually our risk for acute urinary retention you want to make sure that you get

urinalysis a lot of patience wet with lots is not only due to pph you could also be secondary to UTI or if patient has some type of bladder tumor or bladder disorder so it's kind of good to know to understand some of the lingo

that urology uses so once they see the urologist they do some your dynamic studies and one of the popular ones are these non-invasive studies called euro flama tree and the post-void residual do you offer the Euro excuse me you heard

from a tree usually we will measure the flow rate and the volume of the patients so what they do is they they would pee in this special funnel and the final obviously they go in private but this final is connected to some machine that

can actually measures how fast and how much their voiding and so normally it's about 25 miles per second but if it's anywhere less than 13 to 15 it can suggest obstruction and use the obstructions usually due to BPH some of

us a very low flow rate such as like say less than ten or six you have you want to be a suspicious of some type of you to neutral structure after they do that usually what they'll do is they take a post void residual is basically scan so

they'll put that little probe above the bladder and they'll see how much is left in a bladder if it's 150 that she usually indicates in complete emptying someone who has greater than 200 that may suggest patients having some type of

bladder dysfunction so a lot of its patients to us at least woke up with some type of imaging and the ones that at least our physician selects is the MRI patient do get a CT angiogram which can also evaluate the pelvic Anatomy and

arteries however the process the mr process actually gives a better illustration of the prostate a tissue to see if there's any suspicious for cancer for example you can also display the president atomy and characteristic up

the gland so most patients do get MRI or at least we get them to get MRI to measure the actual volume in literature they will tell you that a patient can get a trance rectal ultrasound but I'm not sure how many

guys in here would like a probe stuck up their butt to get to get their prostate measured so unless you wanted to get pissed at you just supporter I am right so when we see the patient you obviously want to review their HMP more

importantly you'll want to check their comorbidities there's social history whether it is smoke or not because they're gonna that's gonna have an impact on how we stay patients and how you can predict their anatomies

obviously someone's died who is diabetic or who has a history of smoking you could expect for them to have a greater degree of atherosclerosis and again the first thing that we would get the patient why we walked in is we go in

that scoresheet the IPSS score and so that's gonna give us an idea of how bad this symptoms are so if they come in to us with a score of say you know they're mildly symptomatic I'm not sure how much to pee a procedure with would help them

because how much more lower can we get their scores down so a lot of patients we would treat are in the moderate to severe category and their quality of life score should be for the most part will be about three or higher you also

want to make sure the trusted results since this is Andrew Graham procedures you will make sure that they have a pretty decent renal function patients with lots a lot of them may have some degree of renal insufficiency so we have

to be careful make sure we watch that lab value so this is some of the screening criteria that a lot of us may use so patients who I have refractory to medications for the six months someone has a high IPSS core grain 13 or

qualifies score greater than three process volumes gotta be at least 40 grams we sometimes get patients with a high score but they're positive volumes around 30 we usually usually wouldn't treat those

patient because we can't basically treat or shrink the prostate any any lower than that you someone who has an abnormal urine Flo and someone who maybe refractor to medical therapy these are just a list of

exclusion criteria the ones that should my party set out someone who has prostatitis or current approximate infection you definitely want don't want to treat those patients chronic renal failure and relatively maybe coagulation

factors that could be patient dependent sometime sometimes we could optimize them to get this arteriogram procedure and prostate and bladder malignancy also this somewhat also relative we do treat patients with prostate cancer it just

depends on what course of treatment they're on currently so once we had screen the patients and and deemed them to be a candidate we reviewed the patient we review in detail the procedure with the patient so you want

to let them know that it's a our angiogram procedure that will go through the either the growing or sometimes the radio and the procedure itself you can take anywhere from one for one to four hours and sometimes longer depending on

how complicated their arteries feeding the prosthetist more importantly we want to educate them about the side effects okay we have to let them know that a lot of their symptoms might actually worsen during the first few days after the

procedure so if they have the Syria now urinary continence they actually may get really worse especially for the first few days okay we have to go over the complication with the patients that can include a public infection ischemia or

any vessel related complications that pseudoaneurysm or bleeding so we have to basically have a basic knowledge of how do we combat this side effects and these are just some of the list of side effects that

are mentioning or at least we also used a PI radium it helps I guess to numb up the prostate urethra we have to educate the patient that this can change the color of the urine so we always make a note to our patients that if you are

going to take this medication please call us that way we don't kind of shock you and we also know that the change of color is from the pair radium and not from anything else the tripping or oxybutynin

it helps reduce bladder spasm we would normally use it for a patient who go somewhere to Foley our patients would go some Foley tends to have a great degree of bladder spasm Coley's a lot of spatially get constipated for multiple

reasons being better that or they and she is soft and there's also the over-the-counter azem so this is just a sum of the standard medications that we would give all our patients all of them will get about cipro for seven days

we'll give them some type of anti-inflammatory Asia usually is ibuprofen were prescribed 800 a tid if needed anti-acids since it's just to protect your belly or their stomach from the ibuprofen minimum we'll get a stool

softener at least for the first three days or if they got developed loose toast and we would ask them to stop it and the medications for pain that we would get them as Norco just in case and I would say like more than half these

patients don't even need Norco at best they'll probably use ibuprofen you know just to minimize the inflammatory side effects that I get it also helps out with post embolization that sometimes we'll get and I believe so I don't I'm

not sure if I'm messing about post embolization syndrome patient do can get these symptoms and a lot of symptoms can vary they can get some body slug or fever malaise and the degree the symptoms were may bear from patient to

patient and a lot of symptoms are described kind of like a flu-like symptoms and we also want to reiterate a patient that the symptoms are temporary and it should get better over to at least at first week or so so patients on

warfarin we have a lot of patients on warfarin for whatever reason whether they had a recent cardiac intervention we want to assure that we stop those medications at least before the edge ground procedure so it's very important

that you have a good rapport or whoever and have prescribed him the coumadin whether it's a cardiologist or the surgical team and a lot of dissipation may need to be crossover outside like a short-acting

anticoagulation such as Lobo Knox at least in our practice we ask the patient to this condition discontinue your aspirin unless they're you know they have a recent cardiac intervention we may leave it leave them

on aspirin metformin as very important since we did it is a natural procedure we want to at least hold have the patient hold the metformin the morning of the procedure and maybe a couple of days after and someone who are

allergic to contrasts we will make sure that we're prepared to premedicate a patient and also be prepared in case there's a severe reaction and the pre medication as we know will give them some type of a standard metal prednisone

will they'll take it like twelve seven or one hour before and they also gets unbearable and preoperatively or one hour before the procedure and during the clinic we also determine the level of anesthesia so since this procedure

usually takes a long time we always get it with our anesthesia team is just more for patient comfort it's not really for pain okay I couldn't imagine laying a table for several hours at the time so we all shop anesthesia on board just

really for patient comfort so we're just

no way around this I'm gonna read to you the inclusion criteria right off the protocol it's kind of long so confirmed diagnosis I wrote some single line there that can help you follow along confirm diagnosis of HCC number two patients

above age 23 patients with single or multiple nodules HCC who are unsuitable or unwilling for surgical resection or RFA the largest tumor nodule should be less than 10 centimeters in the large largest diameter total volume of tumor

cannot exceed 50% of the liver patients are candidates for trans arterial embolisation no tumor invasion to portal vein or thrombosis and main and first branch of the portal vein 5 patients have no lymph node involvement or

distant metastasis 6 ECoG score at 0 to 1 with no known cardiac pulmonary or renal dysfunction 7 child pew score group a and B 7 eight patient should have measurable disease by contrast MRI nine prior local

therapies such as surgical resection radiofrequency ablation and alcohol injection are allowed as long as tumor progresses from the prior treatment and the patients are still candidates for tae 10 patients have normal organ

function based on some labs eleven patients are able to understand and willing to sign the informed consent and twelve men and women of childbearing age need to commit to using two methods of contraception and the exclusion criteria

so my name is Paul I'm one of the nurse practitioners from UCI Irvine healthcare and what am i one of our minerals in there is basically working on patients for consultations doing the patient rounds writing notes ordering labs etc we also have several clinics that we run

at UCI Medical Center involving patients needing consultations for Libra direct therapies ablations and so forth and one of the more recent clinic that we started running is basically treating patients with BPH and so what we would

know inspiration is basically treating and regarding their symptoms and the procedures pretty much called a prostate artery embolization so the main purpose of this patient excuse me the main purpose of this

topics is basically to provide the general information of what the procedures are about illustrating indications risk and to hopefully help our nursing staff to better take care of these patients sorry so first and

foremost I just wanted to thank my team UC Irvine for allowing me to take some time off of work and enjoying Austin and its many food and object and and allowing me to speak to you guys a little bit about prostate ammo on our

pitchers basically you can't I don't know laser printer but our physicians dr. Karen Nelson she's one of our chief of IR dr. Dan through Fernando dr. Nadine a bitch day and dr. James Castro thesis

he's got daughter Kat Reese is our main doctor that does most of our process embolization our excellent iron nursing team and of course my fellow nurse practitioners who is holding the fort back home Pamela and Takara and watch

and Lou sorry but so our objectives for discussions basically to illustrate the indications and benefits of prostate artery embolization we're going to go over the side effects and risk complications associated with this

procedure and also recognize the value of nursing care going starting from the workup leading to the proper process in trot process and post procedure care sort of a brief outline of what we're gonna be

talking about we're just gonna go over the basic fundamentals of BPH as well as the treatment for PAE and the second portion of this lecture is going over how we walk patients up in clinic what we tell patients and we're gonna go

through the proper care and drop care ask well ask the post-op care and we're going to go through a couple of cases in there it's just to describe to you guys how we care for these special population

very helpful these patients the calcium this and the vessels can be

seen through with the MRA it doesn't it doesn't cause as much artifact so it could be easier to see what's going on in calcified vessels additionally you saw an image in Marc's talk as well of this is an example of a time-resolved

image of an MRA or you can basically recreate exactly what you're seeing in an angiogram and this could be very helpful to kind of determine what kind of TVL disease you're getting yourself into

newer MRI techniques that we're using in the evaluation patients with PID functional MRI which compares the ratio of how much oxygen versus deoxygenated hemoglobin we have in a tissue so we can apply this to a pre and post exercise

scenario in patients to have claudication as well although it's not it's only approved in research protocols this is an example of what you see for that so pre intervention here's the CTA image reconstruct

in 3d with a long segment an iliac occlusion and then post intervention you can see there's a standard reconstructed vessel and the you can both chart this out and do it and superimpose it on the MRA image and you're gonna get an actual

quantitative amount of tissue reperfusion but studies are still ongoing to determine just how much increasing the amount of red that's in that image is important we don't know the answer to that yet here's just

another example a patient underwent an anterior tibial artery recanalization and you can see the improvement in the t2 star which is just one of the one of the measurements that you can use on these images so what's on the horizon

know we're running a bit short on time so I want to briefly just touch about

some techniques with comb beam CT which are very helpful to us there are a lot of reasons why you should use comb beam CT it gives us the the most extensive anatomic understanding of vascular territories and the implications for

that with oncology are extremely valuable because of things like margin like we discussed here's an example of a patient who had a high AF P and their bloodstream which tells us that they have a cancer in her liver we can't see

it on the CT there but if you do a cone beam CT it stands up quite nicely why because you're giving levels of contrast that if you were to give them through a peripheral IV it would be toxic to the patient but when you're infusing into a

segment the body tolerates at the problem so patient preparation anxa lysis is key you have them exhale above three seconds prior to that there's a lot of change to how we're doing this people who are introducing radial access

power injection anywhere from about 50 to even sometimes thirty to a hundred percent contrast depends on what phase you're imaging we have a Animoto power injector that allows us to slide what contrast concentration we like a lot of

times people just rely on 30% and do their whole the case with that some people do a hundred percent image quality this is what it looks like when someone's breathing this is very difficult to tell if there's complete

lesion enhancement so if you do your comb beam CT know it looks like this this is trying to coach the patient and try to get them to hold still and then this is the patient after coaching which looks like this so you can tell that you

have a missing portion of the lesion and you have to treat into another segment what about when you're doing an angio and you do a cone beam CT NIT looks like this this is what insufficient counts looks like on comb beam so when you see

these sort of Shell station lines that are going all over the screen you have to raise dose usually in larger patients but this is you know you either slow down the acquisition speed of your comb beam or

you raise dose this is what it looks like after we gave it a higher dose protocol it really changes everything those lines are still there but they're much smaller how do you know if you have enhancement or a narrow artifact you can

repeat with non-contrast CT and give the patient glucagon and you can find the small very these small arteries that pick off the left that commonly profuse the stomach the right gastric artery you can use your comb beam CT to find

non-target evaluation even when your angio doesn't suggest it so this is a patient they have recurrent HCC we didn't angio from here those arteries down there where those coils were looked funny even though the patient was

quote-unquote coiled off we did a comb beam CT and that little squiggly C shape structures that duodenum that's contrast going in it this would be probably a lethal event for the patient or certainly would require surgery if you

treated that much with y9t reposition the catheter deeper towards the lesion and you can repeat your comb beam CT and see that you don't have an hands minh sometimes you have these little accessory left gastric artery this is

where we really need your help you know a lot of times everyone's focused and I think the more eyes the better for these kind of things but we're looking for these little tiny vessels that sometimes hop out of the liver and back into the

stomach or up into the esophagus there's a very very small right gastric artery in this picture here this patient post hepatectomy that rides along the inferior surface of the liver it's a little curly cube so and this is a small

esophageal branch so when you do comb beam TT this is what the stomach looks like when it enhances and this is what the esophagus looks like when it enhances you can do non contrast comb beam CTS to confirm ablation so you have

a lesion this is the comb beam CT for enhancement you treat with your embolic and this is a post to determine that you've had completely shin coverage and you can see how that correlates a response so the last thing we're going

other things that we look at tools that we use include the ankle and toe brachial indices those are these at blood pressure comparisons between the

arm and the foot or the toe the great first toe we use segmental pressures your blood pressures and multiple levels down the leg pulse volume recordings which look very similar with cuffs down the leg but they're looking at the size

of the leg per heartbeat PPG's which is basically pulse ox for the four individual toes TCP o2 which is very important and not used enough which is looking at the oxygen tension within the tissue itself and skin perfusion

pressure so ABI as I mentioned as a comparison the arm and the leg pressures and people with CLI often have an ABI less than point for the pressures gonna be less than 50 millimeters in mercury so the ABI may be falsely elevated

people who have chronic kidney disease because the vessels get calcified and they don't compress very well when you blow up the cuff increasing it above 0.45 after if it's been below that is somewhat predictive of wound healing but

not that helpful at the time of an angiogram so as the higher the two pressures is often used to calculate this because you have two pressures and each leg right you have it dorsalis pedis pressure that

you can get and you have posterior tibial so the way that you do in ABI is you look at the higher of the two and compare that to your arm pressure so just remember if your ulcer is being supplied by the vessel that's got the

lower pressure than your ABI is could be normal you could still have CLI so again not always that helpful the toe brachial indices is a it is a little bit more helpful people with diabetes only because the toe arteries tend not to

calcify as quickly in these patients less than 0.75 is considered abnormal and increasing it up into the normal range of course is predictive of fluid wound healing so limitations these only really look at

the macro vascular so that you know the named ves blood vessel patency they don't really tell you what's going on at the level of the capillaries and a recent meta-analysis suggests that neither of them can be consistently

relied upon as okay it came to a normal range we're definitely not gonna get an amputation now so I think I really do have to press both buttons each time so the systolic pressure measurements for segmental pressures you basically look

at the pressures on multiple levels of down the leg a drop of greater than 20 is considered significant and then severity of a number of lesions can't be totally determined from that again this only really tells you what's going on in

the named vessels pulse volume recordings these are cuffs that are looking at the volume of the limb with each pulse it's helpful and patients would they have non compressible vessels because the leg actually has a it's a

microscopic but detectable increase in size with each pulse and so this is better in people who have non compressible vessels and changes in PVR's often will actually precede angiographic findings CTA findings and

recent publication from the s from the society vascular surgery however calls into question their usefulness compared to a bi alone the good pictures are coming soon so this is an example what you may see in

the chart for some of your patients with critical limb ischemia so this is actually segmental pressure and pulse while recording from where I trained in Miami and basically what we're looking at is a combination of things on one of

these sheets so the pressures are listed in the middle but each sheet is going to be different depending on your institution so you're looking for a big drop and pressure from one level to the next so if you look for example in the

middle at the right leg you know there's a 176 in the arm and then there's a 126 in the high thigh normally because of gravity you should have an increase in flow at that level so that's already I have normal on the right side and then

progressing down any grade any drop greater than 20 suggested that something may be abnormal at that level PPG's these are really good for detecting what may be going on at the foot or lower levels so you transmit an infrared

signal through the toe and then try to see how much of that light comes out the other side essentially and so the amount of it it's depending on how much bloods in the digit and the flow the flow of the blood vessels so if you had a

previously flatlined signal then restoring a pulsatile signal is considered a and it you know an approved marker of tissue perfusion so this is essential in patients who have distal ulcers particularly in the level of the

toe because restoring you see you've probably all seen those of you that work in labs that do a lot of peripheral disease seen an angio graphic result where you get flow down to like the mid foot but you see no perfusion down to

the digits and unfortunately that's often not going to be enough to heal a wound so the PPG's are something I try to get in all patients who have tote tote ones so there's an example of a patient who

has flatline and all five digits on the right foot and we recant alized their anterior tibial artery and had flow all the way down there and there was a wound blush in the toe and this is the restore pulsatilla T in all five digits the next

day so at our institution now and also I've modeled after what it was with my training which is the day after the procedure we keep all these patients overnight we get an ABI i segmental pressures and pulsefire

recordings and PPG's and anyone who has flat waveforms in them in their foot level or anybody with a toll sir and if possible we try to get a duplex which you get which I'll go over next it's not always reimbursable at all institutions

if you do them in the same day though so TCP o2 as I mentioned is something that's a little underutilized I think the the task two recommendations that we actually use to stratify the different types of disease and perf arterial

disease suggest that all patients with CLI should have this testing done but it's hard because patients have to not smoke and not drink coffee or tea the morning of the exam and that's hard to get patients to do you have to keep the

room temperature controlled and so it's office availability is limited so an improvement values greater than forty millimeters of mercury in the area surrounding an ulcer suggests that it's going to have successful healing so we

often will do this before we take the patient for an angiogram as a baseline and then bring them back afterwards and if we're if we have a very large increase that you know that's a good sign but of course we're our goal is

usually to be greater than forty and it's one of the few of these tests that's actually useful in patients who don't have Doppler signals so this is a totally not fake wound on this right foot this is example of what it looks

like you basically put multiple probes around the area of the foot and you're testing for the different oxygen tensions skin perfusion pressures is analogous but slightly different basically you're inflating a cop over

different areas of tissue and until the blood flow stops and then slowly deflating it until you can detect light being transmitted through that area again greater than thirty values or predictive of wound healing a lot of

numbers and there will be a test at the end of this so this is a chart kind of showing the ischemic wounds healing likelihood is correlated with an increase in the skin perfusion pressure so if you're less than 30 you're

unlikely to heal if you're greater than 40 it's most likely not an excuse mcquown and you should start looking at other ideologies like venous disease or neuropath neuropathic disease or infection duplex ultrasound is extremely

are just a couple examples you know this is a little bit of older data but our uterine fibroid embolization have gone up by 60 percent from when we started to where we are now or filter retrieval

program gone up by 400 percent you know our ablations have gone up by over 50% you know and that's it's not saying that's all because of social media but it's partially because of that because we do get patients that come into our

clinic because of that and then on top of that I'll tag when I'm doing an ablation I'll tag my urologist or I'll tag de aslv you know and then all of a sudden sometimes they like it which pushes it to their followers or they'll

retweet it which directly pushes it to their followers and then in which case you're putting yourself in the consciousness of people that can refer you cases and all of a sudden now you become indispensable in the realm of

ablation at least in my case because everybody sees me posting about it right so everybody in our institution is sending me ablation cases and that's a really great thing for us so you know I

next is me talking about Egypt and Ethiopia and how I are how IRS practice in Egypt and Ethiopia and I think feather and Musti is gonna talk a little bit about Ethiopia as well he's got a

lot of experience about in about Ethiopia I chose these two countries to show you the kind of the the the the difference between different countries with within Africa Egypt is the 20th economy worldwide by GDP third largest

economy in Africa by some estimates the largest economy in Africa it's about a hundred million people about a little-little and about thirty percent of the population in the u.s. 15 florist's population worldwide and has

about a little over a hundred ir's right now 15 years ago they had less than ten IRS and fifteen years ago they had maybe two to three IRS at a hundred percent nowadays they're exceeding a hundred IRS so tremendous gross in the last 15 years

in the other hand Ethiopia is a very similar sized country but they only have three to five IRS that are not a hundred percent IRS and are still many of them are under training so there are major differences between countries within

within Africa countries that still need a lot of help and a lot of growth and countries that are like ten fifteen years ahead as far as as far as intervention ready intervention radiology

most of the practice in Ethiopia are basic biopsies drainages and vascular access but there is new workshops with with embolization as well as well as well as vascular access in Egypt the the ir practice is heavily into

interventional oncology and cancer that's the bulk that's the bulk of their of their practices you also get very strong neuro intervention radiology and that's mostly most of these are French trained and not

American trains so they're the neuro IRS in Egypt or heavily French and Belgian trains with with french-speaking influence but the bulk of the body iron that's not neuro is mostly cancer and it involves y9e tastes ablations high-end

ablations there's no cryoablation in Egypt there is high-end like like a nano knife reverse electric race electroporation in Egypt as well but there is no cryo you also get a specialty embolization such as fibroids

prostate and embroiders are big in Egypt they're growing very very rapidly especially prostates hemorrhoids and fibroids is an older one but it's still there's still a lot of growth for fibroid embolization zyou FES in Egypt

there's some portal portal intervention there's a lot of need for that but not a lot of IRS are actually doing portal intervention and then there's nonvascular such as billary gu there's also vascular access a lot of

the vascular access is actually done by nephrology and is not done by not not done by r is done by some high RS varicose veins done by vascular surgery and done by IRS as an outpatient there's a lot of visceral angiography as well

renal and transplants stuff so it's pretty high ends they do not do P ad very few IR s and maybe probably two IR s in the country that actually do P ad the the rest of the P ad is actually endovascular PA DS done by vascular

surgery a Horta is done all by vascular surgery and cardiothoracic surgery it's not done it's not done by IR IR s are asked just to help with embolization sometimes help with trying to get a catheter in a certain area but it's

really run by by vascular surgeons but but most more or less it's it's the whole gamut and I'm going to give you a little example of how things are different that when it comes to a Kannamma 'kz there's no dialysis work

they don't do Pfister grams they don't do D clots the reason for that is the vascular surgeons are actually very good at establishing fishless and they usually don't have a

lot of problems with it sometimes if the fistula is from Beau's door narrowed it's surgically revised they do a surgical thrombectomy because it's a lot cheaper it's a lot cheaper than balloons sheaths and and trying to and try a TPA

is very expensive it's a lot cheaper for a surgeon to just clean it out surgically and resuture it there's no there's no inventory there are no expensive consumables so we don't see dialysis as far as fistula or dialysis

conduits at all in Egypt and that's usually a trend in developed in developed countries next we'll talk

workflow for pet MRI upon arrival the patient have to fill out questionnaires the MRI screening for contrast and allergy assessment pet screening form

the RT will review MRI screening for after he checked that the patients at MRI safe and no presence of a Mia Ferris fragments or anything he would give the paper to the RN the patient then will be escorted through the change room and

asked to put on robe and non slip shots this is these are the responsibilities of the nurse in our clinical workflow for pet MRI RN to review pet screening form and contrast questionnaire if patient have to receive gadolinium check

kidney function EGFR below 15 you notify the radiologist except for a of s below 30 you notify the radiologist check for allergies if allergic make sure patients is properly pre-medicated

check for Medicaid presence of medication patches and implanted infusion pumps now also you have to check for patient's blood glucose monitoring I have one but I would but I don't go inside the scanner so I'm safe

check for pregnancy status with pediatric patients we have a special process to follow the iron then obtains blood glucose and record if blood glucose is 70 to 199 we proceed with the scan anything above 200 we follow the

glycemic management with PET imaging flow chart and here's how our PET imaging flow chart looks like it looks complicated by its color coded it's three pages but I would like to show you some key points like the administration

of insulin is also based on the level of BMI you see on the arrow says BMI below 25 and there's another flow chart is if it's above 25 after that the patient will be brought back to the pet designated injection room

remember our pet MRI is located in zone three of the MRI area so prior to that the RT would the screen the patient again the patient would pass through the wall-mounted metal detector and nobody could go into song free without escorted

by the IRT or a nurse you have to swipe your ID to open the door mission when the patients in the hot room are in would obtain the height in centimeters and weight in kilos after that the RN now could do IV access once

secured you call the range of pharmacists that you're ready to inject so we wait until and the FDG dose would come up through the pneumatic children this is how our hot lab looks like the pneumatic tube to your left above is the

shower and we have the hoop to prepare for the dose or check for the dose and the wash station and once the those arrives the nurse injecting and the RT is scanning or the RT assisting just always two artists in one machine in our

MRI Department we have four magnets and only one is for MRI PET MRI it's always two artists in each machine so one RT is assisting you and with the patient so once the FDG arrives we do a patient identification using two patient

identifiers we check the label and the dose if it's correct the FDG then will be injected to the patient once injected we tell the patient they have to wait for 40 minutes during this time we instruct them to stay still not stay

still but limit movement and stimulation and inform them that we have a camera inside that room and the nurses in a and the nurses could monitor them in the nurse's station one RT will set up the scanner and computer

and patient will be screen and wondered prior to so on for so you get wandered twice check for ferrous presence patient then will be positioned on the scanner table by the pet mr technologies it takes 15

to 20 minutes for setup you have seen how the patient is position the whole body is covered by the coils and head is covered by another coil as anybody among he works in the institution who requires time out prior to injection raise your

hand please at ms KCC we do this is done by the injecting nurse and the RT is scanning the RT is reading information directly from the monitor not anywhere in the monitor while the nurse is comparing and listening into the using

the documents on hand this is done to ensure the five rights the right patient the right scan the right area your scanning the right contrast those and rate and method of administration as you all know is either given IV push or by

the dynamic or the injector timeout will be done if patient will be receiving gadolinium once the scan is finished IV access will be removed our artists are trying to remove and inject also so they are capable of removing the IV the

radiation card will be handed to the patient and paste after that patient would be assisted to the change room and discharge there is good thing when you change the patient into the robe and the non-skid

sucks because just in case there's a spill you're not sending that patient into the paper outfit they're not gonna be happy at all now I'm gonna bring you

different applications renal ablation is very common when do we use it

high surgical risk patients primary metastatic lesions some folks are actually refused surgery nowadays and saying I'll have a one centimeter reno lesion actually want this in lieu of surgery people have

familial syndromes they're prone to getting a renal cancer again so we're trying to preserve renal tissue it is the most renal parenchymal sparing modality and obviously have a single kidney and a lot of these are found

incidentally when they're getting a CT scan for something else here's a very sizable one the patient that has a cardiomyopathy can see how big the heart is so it's you know seven centimeter lesion off of the left to superior pole

against the spleen this patient wouldn't have tolerated bleeding very much so we went ahead and embolized it beforehand using alcohol in the pide all in a coil and this is what it looks like when you have all those individual ice probes all

set up within the lesion and you can see the ice forming around I don't know how well it projects but in real time you can determine if you've developed your margin we do encompass little bit of spleen with that and you can see here

that you have a faint rim surrounding that lesion right next to the spleen and that's the necrotic fat that's how you know that you got it all and just this ablation alone caused a very reactive pleural

effusion that you can see up on the CT over there so imagine how this patient would have tolerated surgery pulmonary

you see again renal Dena Graham you can see a hint of the gonad of Ain selective

vena Graham again showing us the large gonadal vein and that's my post so charcoal with the occlusion balloon and then treat I showed the cartoon slide before that we look at all four of those territories so I always start with the

left but then I'm gonna look at the right gonadal vein as well as the internal iliac veins on both sides in this case the right go Natalie was normal as were the internal iliac veins so not seeing any varicosities

normal venous outflow so this patient it was only treated with a left gonadal vein embolization

primary Africa cm point 86% matured remember what do we say before you know not what 96% so that's the answer to the surgeons why surgeon says why should I do this why don't I just create official

it takes me 20 minutes there's no surgeon in the world who can create a fistula that's gonna mature 86 percent of the time I don't that's not happening all right the endpoints were met secondary

endpoints to needle dialysis 88% I mean that just doesn't happen surgically I'm sorry and I'll show you some other data as well where the superiority of the percutaneous fistula over surgery this is the jvi are pivotal trial I with Jeff

Hall and tip Jennings and here's the match of the secondary maturation procedures that had to be done all right some get an estimate and we angioplasty the anastomosis embolization of branches an angioplasty Stan's oh okay

here's the bar device and this is called the ever linked queue back in these six French days and now wave link device there are two catheters one goes into the brachial artery one goes into a brachial vein there's a big magnets this

is the six wrench device and you can see that little connection I hope you can that's a foot foot plate a little electrode that pops up between the two catheters it actually creates the official of this time with a

radiofrequency energy on the right you see a brachial artery angiogram and the point of official creation with six ranch was the common on our branch which you can see down there below you have the big dense radial artery coming up on

top and then you see the common arm branch and then the proper ol arm going down there at four o'clock and then the interosseous in the middle now with the the four french device you can create fistulas from the

radial vein to radial artery or radial arterial vein owner artery to ulnar vein and either one gives you a little more options about where you want to create well why would you want options well if you go down to the video of vena Graham

in the and the ulna vein and you don't see any flow up the the perforator well you can only switch to the other side and to try to find better flow put yourself in a better position to create a working fistula this does use

ultrasound to puncture but then uses fluoroscopy to position the devices its RF energy has a little bit of a problem with heavily calcified vessels who's ever seen that and in dialysis patient right so and because radiofrequency

energy goes around calcium it doesn't go through we've had one case where we did there was just no fistula creation everything went finally since no fistula and so that patient got a surgical fistula multiple angles to confirm

correct position of the device this was with the six french device the four french device is much less cumbersome because you want to make sure that that footplate that I showed you sits directly in the receiver area to create

otherwise if you go off to the side left and right they you can have a problem with creating pseudoaneurysm some things no angioplasty then ask to most us however in this case you do embolize on the way out because you've entered the

brachial vein and you embolize form just to stop any losing and to because you want to help to redirect flow towards the superficial system here are the two devices on the left into the four frames versus the six

range quite a difference much more easy to work with the four french doesn't have a bulky handle on the end like the six ranch did they're pretty easy to position and it's a a round electrode not a foot that comes up and it kind of

sits in what they call the saddle you can see there where it says square magnets underfloor french there's a saddle there that that loop electrode sits in and very easy in there to position

who's a candidate well doctor Ross says

I'm gonna talk about me and shoulder embolization I'll take out my phone here so I know the timer perfect and I will try and cover everything about knee and shoulder embolization as quickly as I can so why are we doing this is really what I'm going to talk about there are

two different disease processes and the knee we're talking about arthritis and in the shoulder I'm talking about frozen shoulder so these are my disclosures obviously you know knee knee osteoarthritis is a major problem that

affects more than 30 million people in the United States and there are more than a hundred thousand hospitalizations a year just from NSAID toxicity in this patient population who takes NSAIDs for pain of course and they end up with

things like GI bleeds there are more deaths just related to n says the United States and there are more than four million knee injections performed annually in the

United States keep this in mind there are double-blind randomized placebo-controlled studies that show that knee injections don't work and yet there are four million every year okay so what's the rationale for genicular

artery embolisation so in the knee we always learn that knee arthritis is degenerative right there's no inflammation like rheumatoid arthritis but many years ago they discovered that there's actually an underlying synovial

inflammation that leads to an increase in these cytokines being released that leads to new blood vessel growth or angiogenesis and then this is the cycle of pain that occurs after that how does this actually occur and like I mentioned

it's not a new concept here as you can see this is a depiction from a 2005 article from Journal Rheumatology it just blown-up knee joint and what happens here is in the lining with that sort of peach color or light color on

the lateral aspect of the image where it says synovium gets inflamed releases these cytokines those cytokines break down the cartilage lead to new blood vessel growth and it's an inflammatory process so not just a degenerative

process and that it's that inflammation that we aim to target with genicular artery embolisation if you even take biopsies of patients who have inflammatory diseases and the joints here if you look at those two

slides on top we're all those little dark staining blood vessels there there that's a biopsy specimen from somebody with frozen shoulder to two slides below or actually biopsy specimens of someone's synovium who has just a

rotator cuff tear and you'll see there's no increased blood vessels in the two slides below but on the top there are increased blood vessels every time you have more blood vessels you have more nerves that's why they

call it a neurovascular bundle because they travel together so that's what leads to the increased pain and sensitivity so in the knee there have been studies like 2015 we published that study on 13 patients with 24 month

follow-up for knee embolization for bleeding which you may have seen very commonly in your institution but dr. Okun Oh in 2015 published that article on the bottom left 14 patients where he did embolization in the knee for people

with arthritis he actually used an antibiotic not imposing EMBO sphere and any other particle he did use embolus for in a couple patients sorry EMBO zine in a couple of patients but mainly used an antibiotic so many of you know if

antibiotics are like crystalline substances they're like salt so you can't inject them in arteries that's why I have to go into IVs so they use this in Japan to inject and then dissolve so they go into the artery they dissolve

and they're resorbable so they cause a like a light and Baalak effect and then they go away he found that these patients had a decrease in pain after doing knee embolization subsequently he published a paper on 72 patients 95

knees in which he had an excellent clinical success clinical success was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in knee pain so they had more than 50% reduction in knee pain in 86 percent of the patients at two years 79 percent of

these patients still had knee pain relief that's very impressive results for a procedure which basically takes in about 45 minutes to an hour so we

of critical of ischemia well a lot of times it starts in our office with a physical examination so we do a risk

factor assessment and this is what happens before they get on our table with with everyone in this room and us seeing the patient assessment of intermittent claudication and it can be subtle many patients don't come in and

say oh yeah I have pain when I walk for a short time and then it I rest and it goes away a lot of times it's yeah you know my leg gives out or now it doesn't hurt it's kind of this weird feeling when I walk and it these atypical

symptoms and then obviously if they have a wound you have to a wound evaluation on physical examination things we're looking for feeling a pulse you'll be surprised how many primary care providers never feel a pulse and if we

say if you feel a pulse you may save a life because you may be the first one to say hey this patient doesn't have a pulse maybe they have got peripheral artery disease and if they prefer order these maybe have coronary artery disease

and maybe they should we start on aspirin or statin and save them from a heart attack and stroke and so you really can save a life abnormal capillary refill so in other words you've got such bad blood flow

that if you smush on their foot it takes a long time for that blood to come back because they have such poor perfusion there's something a Peugeot stess TWEN that if you lift their leg gravity alone pushes their blood isn't it overcomes

the force of blood and so there are foot becomes power becomes losing some color and then when you put them down it dilates and you get sort of this ruborous red color so that's a burger sign I just had a good example in clinic

about a week or two ago so what do we ask for patients do of any pain or discomfort in the leg thigh or butt with walking your exercise I will sell you tell you I often don't use the word pain because everyone thinks pain is

different so so some people say well it's not paying it's a key lake ease pain to me I'm a guy everything's pain to me right low low threshold but discomfort is a good way of asking it foot or toe pain

that disturbs your sleep do you have any skin ulcers or sores on your ankles feet or toes I think it's very important to know what kind of patient you're talking to in terms of Education level or in terms of just language so some patients

don't know what it all sir is and they use the term sore some people don't know what a sore is they used term wound and so just sort of you ask things different ways I think is really important when we all talk to our patients and again a lot

of classic history will miss a large majority of PAE because patients don't read the textbook the one thing I'll say is I hear this all the time well the patient had pulses and so they don't have P ad that is hashtag false and the

reason is pulse exam is insensitive so in other words even if you feel pulses they can still have peripheral artery disease okay now if you don't feel pulses they certainly have peripheral artery disease or you're just terrible

at it PID classification the way we talk about patients with PA D we use a classification scale called Rutherford it may come up so in other words patient who has PA D but asymptomatic is

Rutherford zero a patient who has got major tissue loss and is basically 1 for amputation is Rutherford 6 and then everything in between is sort of a gradation we cut off 3 to 4 so 3 is claudication pain only 4 is critical in

ischemia rest pain alright so rather for classification when we talk about wounds you may see this you don't need to go in details but there's a Wi-Fi classification that sort of Germans how bad is the ulcer and how likely are you

to to lose your leg it's sort of a prognostic I will remind you that in medicine there's differentials for everything in other words the patient comes to you with pain or you talk to your friend or whatever with pain

there's a lot of things in cause pain it could be back pain arthritis infection DVT so there's things we have to think about when I was in medical school I sort of loved this my OB GaN professor said when he sees a patient the first

thing he does is say what do I think this patient have if this were a man because you get so pigeon-holed in your specialty every patient we see as well must be vas here must be vas care but you've got to take a step back and say

okay well am I missing something maybe it's arthritis may something else so don't get pigeonholed by your own prejudices which is a good life lesson in general there's also a differential for wounds so obviously

when we see a wound we could have arterial arterial tends to be sort of the toes and distal foot it can be severe pain if you see an ulcer around the ankle that tends to be more venous so vein related which again we

can treat and then a common cause is neuropathic so if you see I'm sort of at the pressure points where people walk a lot of times patient diabetes will step on something and where you and I would be like oh man that hurts

I better oh my god I have a wound there I better check that out they'll never know because they don't feel their feet and so they could have this monster ulcer and finally someone inspects their feet and says you know you have like a

golf ball sized hole in your foot and that's the first time they ever notice it so how do we test ever for peripheral artery disease well a lot of it is non-invasive now we do a B is a b is is a measure of blood pressure in the foot

or leg we can do some ultrasound to actually look at the artery and obviously we can do CT and MRI when we look at ultrasound you may look at this every once a while this is a normal ultrasound Doppler waveform where we've

got good blood flow up down and back three now the reason that's important is that correlates the sounds so if you listen to a artery i'ma do my best Doppler impression out okay a normal artery goes once you start getting

peripheral artery disease you lose that triphasic waveform it becomes biphasic when you get severe peripheral artery disease you lose that biphasic waveform it becomes monophasic and when you have nothing it becomes

okay so here's want to be alert to that so ankle brachial index is important and it's helpful again some patients who have calcific us a-- fication it's not helpful for I will tell you a B eyes alone actually not only do they predict

PA D they predict death that's how important PA D is link to mortality CT and MRI is very useful you can see here we can see a good anatomic description of the arteries unfortunately patients with calcium

sometimes we can't see as well because the calcium is so bright on CT scan that it obscures the lumen so we have other problems in patients with diabetes and heavy calcification and a lot of those patients just need to go to angiogram

and as you know my techs and nurses know sometimes rarely but sometimes we do an angiogram and it's normal and we say or there's mild disease we say okay perfect we've taken that off the table we need to move on when some of these

non-invasive testings aren't as clear so alright so in summary critical of ischemia is a morbid disease and can be the first presentation of PA d clinical suspicion and accurate diagnosis is essential for early diagnosis and

treatment and a multidisciplinary team that includes vascular venture loss who know critical limb ischemia not just the SFA and iliac artery jockeys and wound care specialists do decrease amputation rates I like this quote it's not mine

but I'm going to steal it with impunity amputation is not a treatment option it is a treatment failure okay so we have to keep that in mind I appreciate everyone's attention because we can save questions to the end or you do it now if

there's pressing I think we may need new batteries or my thumb's weak which is also a possibility any questions

us off so here's the case from 2011 52 year old woman with asymptomatic PE who gets transferred for an outside hospital to the medical intensive care unit on a mid Saturday I'm at the humorous bit the University of Maryland at this point one

of my partners over there where is she right back there over there the two of them are they are hot hot hot stars right there in the back therapeutic Lee anticoagulated consulted the NICU attending calls me directly

the woman is hypoxic her blood pressure is low the something happens in PowerPoint and then we restart again this has taken its own independent control right now that's alright my back all right I get

to press the green button here we go green button has been pressed no action green button again there we go alright so her o2 saturation is low she's hypotensive she gets a lot of fluid her o2 saturation improves and supposedly

she was able to talk comfortably and they watch her so the question was maybe she should get some intravenous TPA that actually is the thing on the bottle versus in an ir calf direct intervention or heparin at 8 so they continue with

mchugh supports not looking bad at 8:30 at night some hours later I get a new call she's hypotensive now newly so despite therapy she's working harder to breathe an echo has been done it took hours to get the result her right side

of her heart is struggling which is the thing that happens with big pease a bad sign we can look at blood levels of troponin x' and things as well and she's now in IR by 8:30 at night so we move quickly at this point in the room she's

breathing comfortably on 3 to 4 liters of nasal cannula and she's able to talk to me and lie flat in the procedure suite this is a vena cava grant so I've cued us to some of the findings which is the flow is up the vena cava and

backwards into the apat of aim it's going up and it's coming back down so you can it you can flood the vena cable with so much contrast that it's going to spill back because you just overfill it but this is not that injection this is

hand injection ok so that means that something's happening downstream and that's the right heart not able to handle the load of contrast not a good sign actually 10 for 20 I made that number up

because I couldn't remember but I can tell you it wasn't over injected so the mean pulmonary pressure is 55 high low normal okay we got a we got a high sign over there from UVA basketball go so so at this point I'm anxious because she's

anxious and visibly so so we start to hustle to get into the pulmonary arteries and she's starting to do less well very quickly this isn't going to be mechanical thrombectomy I give a race 1/2 systemic bolus that's

a that's actually a high dose of TPA immediately because I'm now hoping that systemic therapy is gonna work as she's decompensating we are preparing to do thrombectomy pressors are being started I give more

TPA which is an indication of being worried she's now intubated CPR particular fibrillation she shock we code her for 40 minutes and she dies in ion so we have the pulmonary Catherine and we haven't started the therapy even

so the question of course is what did we miss beforehand and this is before her okay what sign should have happened sooner yes she was hypercoagulable plus I think a very would this have made a difference it's not so clear even

retrospect did we just pour fluids into her which will keep a blood pressure up and moving on that Starling heart curve that says you heart muscle will continue to work and then you fall off that cliff and would it been done differently on a

Saturday all those kinds of you know on

angiography came along towards the tail end of my fellowship so around 2011-2012

actually a children's Boston initially and then subsequently done in Penn in adults and this really became as simple as doing a lymph node biopsy basically sticking it on a lymph node while it seems novel it's really

interesting because if you go back to 1931 that's actually when they started doing some of this work when they were actually injecting the lymph nodes with these different tracers and they could see so it's a combination of a little

bit of ingenuity and looking back at our history and we the way that made it a lot easier for everybody this is basically my little setup here and I used some Italian syringes a plastic opaque three way so

that the lapa doll doesn't dissolve through it the medallion syringes hold up a lot better than the typical day we used luer lock stuff I use long propofol type thin bore tubing I attached it to a nine

centimeter long 25 to 27 gauge spinal needle I take the inner styler out of that cheeba so that because it's such a skinny needle that it bends a lot and this way I can put it right into the lymph node without having to connect it

to the tubing and then I can start my injection right away the 2115 cheeba there and that scalpel are really the only other things that I need to get started to do a successful thoracic duct embolization other thing that's really

critical is I always ask my texts and nurses to slap SC D's on the patients and if once we have the SC DS it really speeds up the procedure by an hour to two because you have this constant compression of the Venus and the

lymphatics and the legs forcing more fluid to make your thing to make your case I move along more quickly so something that was more recently adopted at many medical centers and these are the type of images that you get so I

stick my needle into the lymph node and I start this injection you give this beautiful arborization of the lap I doll contrast as it continues to spread and move from one lymph node to another you see there's a central area there that

isn't filling that's actually the lymph node that's already transmitted the lap idol and this was the image that I showed you initially so same image injection injecting of different lymph nodes you can see the transit from one

area to the rest of the chain in the pelvis hepatic lymph angiography is not

Disclaimer: Content and materials on Medlantis are provided for educational purposes only, and are intended for use by medical professionals, not to be used self-diagnosis or self-treatment. It is not intended as, nor should it be, a substitute for independent professional medical care. Medical practitioners must make their own independent assessment before suggesting a diagnosis or recommending or instituting a course of treatment. The content and materials on Medlantis should not in any way be seen as a replacement for consultation with colleagues or other sources, or as a substitute for conventional training and study.

×
Create a free account to watch 3 clips every day. Upgrade for unlimited access.