- Thank you, Mr. Chairman. The same institution I guess means the West Coast. So I was asked to talk about surgical management of functional popliteal entrapment in athletes. This comes from a paper we just submitted to the journal in collaboration with
our sports medicine colleagues at Stanford. These are my disclosures. I think we've heard a nice summary of some of the overview. I think I wanted to highlight more from the functional standpoint particularly in the athletes that develop this.
So this is just a reminder of the normal anatomy of the popliteal space. For the younger people in the audience that still have to take some tests the classic is where the popliteal artery is medial to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.
Type V includes any venous kind of impingement and functional has been described as Type VI where there's normal anatomy but you still have the similar symptoms that Dr. Sing had brought up. Purpose of this talk is to describe
our surgical technique for the management of functional popliteal entrapment particularly in athletes using an imaging protocol to help find the portion of the medial head of the gastroc that is compressing on the popliteal artery
and to look at outcomes based on this procedure. Our work up is similar to what the University of Washington does. We start with digit plethysmography in plantar and dorsiflexion. We actually have a pressure meter
to gauge and sort of use so that we can somewhat consistently see what their effort is on this and you see that with plantar flexion on this gentleman the left toe obliterates.
We then do the CTA in plantar flexion. We have a protocol with either a blanket or rope. You go into the CT scanner, get a scan at rest, and then with plantar flexion.
These are what the images look like. Play, so in the relaxed state in the scanner you see a normal nice anatomy with flow throughout the thing. In plantar flexion much like the angiograms Dr. Sing showed
complete obliteration then of the popliteal region. When you look on cross-sectional imaging it helps you identify which part of the gastroc. We found that it often when you draw out the medial head of the gastroc the portion that's compressing
is the anterolateral quadrant compressing it against the lateral femoral condyle. We've treated 36 patients in this series that were all athletes. Half were female. They were all young
with normal resting ABIs and interestingly not a drop in their exercise ABIs indicating, really, that it's a drop of performance that was noted. Mainly track and field folks, soccer players, some water sports,
lacrosse, basketball, skiing, gymnastics and climbing, many of them high school athletes. Many of them are our own local college athletes and a handful of semi-pro athletes. This is the operative technique.
We actually prefer the posterior approach. We take down many side branches of the geniculates, free up the popliteal artery. Here's a video then. Intra-operatively we plantar dorsiflex at the foot level
to see which portion of the artery is being compressed by the bulky gastrocnemius muscle. We choose this section. We use this Liga-sure to then resect the portion of the muscle.
We then continue those prerogative maneuvers until we think that we don't visualize compression anymore. I think using ultrasound like Dr. Sing showed is also a nice way to do that. We've done 56 operations on these 36 patients.
The mean volume of tissue removed as listed. Takes about two hours. Post-operative ABIs are stable. Usually wound issues post-operatively and then the regimen is six to 12 weeks of physical therapy
and then allowed to return to full sport and or the team in four to six weeks. Many of the college athletes wind up having to red shirt that year. The average follow up time for our series has been over four years.
The resolution of symptoms meaning the improvement that allows them to at least return partially to their sport at six months is 87% at a year is nearly all of the patients at at long-term follow up
100% of the patients were back to that type of activity. The more important question particularly for the high school or collegiate or pro athlete is what's the likelihood to get back
to their prior best level of competitive sports and it's about three quarters of patients. Again, all of them, because of functional resolution have been able to get back to casual sport for that. That's in graphical format.
These are what the pictures look like. This is a preop and a postop, the postop now in the same flex position with no longer compression there on the right leg. So in summary about three quarters of the athletes limited
by functional popliteal entrapment demonstrate full return to prior competitive levels. 100% are able to get back to recreational sports. We think the CTA protocols help find the region of the gastroc muscle to reset and we think that this is a good option
in athletes with wanting to get back to their sport, thanks.
- So I'll be talking about different bio-chemical profiles in both, inflammatory or non-healing and granulating wounds. Specifically venous leg ulcers. So, you've heard a lot about venous leg ulcers and there's a lot of treatments but, were going to look at some of the molecular differences that you can actually see in these wounds,
when we actually analyze some of the fluid. (clicking) Nothing to disclose. (clicking) Oop, I'm not going forward. Oh, there we go. So, actually, well go back to Bill Martson's work
with Stephanie Beidler and actually showed very early on that before compression there's a significant inflammatory component within these venous leg ulcers. This is by biopsies and then when these wounds are compressed, after four weeks
of compression, they actually reduce significantly a number of these cytokines and chemokines. As, well as increase the growth factor TGF-Beta. Indicating that, certainly, there's an inflammatory component but with compression, you actually change this to a healing component.
(clicking) We also evaluated work with Ferdinando Mannello in both inflammatory wounds and non-inflammatory wounds or non-healing wounds or granulating wounds in 32 patients and 16 granulating patients. These are all venous leg ulcers,
this is the demographics here. We analyze a number of factors cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and metalloproteinase. All by multiplex immunoassay. This is what the wounds look like before in the inflammatory phase.
I think you're very familiar with that. Then after debridement and after compression as well as interventions of the superficial system, this is what the wounds were looking afterwards. This is where we collected the wound fluid in these two different states.
We find the number of differences that were significant. And other individuals have also seen this. The red circles are actually the significant changes for inflammatory wounds, demonstrating the increase in interleukins. Interleukin-10,
which is actually an anti-inflammatory cytokine, but this is overly expressed in the inflammatory wounds over the granulating wounds. A chemokine IL-8, they're calling it Stimulating Factor Granulocyte Monocyte and also VEGF also consistent with what's
written in the literature, the VEGF's overexpressed in non healing wounds. What we did find actually in granulating wounds, that they expressed other things, specifically RANTES, which is very important in centralizing a number of these pathways
that's overexpressed in the granulating wounds as well as PDGEF factor BB, which is actually consistent again with the literature that PDGEF is actually a predictor of wounds that go on to heal. (clicking)
We then went on to also look at TGF-Beta, there's three different types of TGF-Beta. Three isoforms. And what we found that was significant is that TGF-Beta 3, which is not written too much about in the literature,
is significantly higher in inflammatory wounds. And why is this important? Because this is actually an antagonist to TGF-Beta 1. It actually causes significant inflammatory responses to take place, increases cytokines, increases metalloproteinase 9 and causes
the degradation of wounds leading to actually non healing. And we see that this was significantly elevated. Importantly, we found that endoglin is which is actually a co-factor for the TGF-Beta receptor was significantly elevated in granulating wounds. And that's significant because it has
significant anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the monocyte-endothelial activation. So, we found that this were significant changes. In looking at the proteases, we found that MMP-1, MMP-7 and MMP-13,
which are collagenases, and the stromelysin, were significantly elevated in the granulating wounds as opposed to seeing the degrading enzymes, such as, MMP-2 and MMP-9 and metalloelastase being higher in the inflammatory wounds.
Again, consistent with the literature, MMP-2 and '9,' which are the gelatinases, if you look at the literature, these are consistently higher in non-healing wounds. Oop, sorry, I think I went back there for a second. (clicking)
In looking at the TIMPs, TIMP-1 and '2,' are overly expressing in the inflammatory, which would be expected since they have a significant amount of protease activity. In TIMP-4 which is novel,
was overly expressed in the granulating wounds. Again, this could be a potential marker. Now, there's also the cytokines and the TAM/ligands, these are tyrosine kinase receptors and, the ligands for innate immunity. And just showing that there's actually difference,
both in inflammatory and non-healing wounds and granulating, or healing, wounds, both from the receptor standpoint as well as the ligands. Which again, shows that there's differences in innate immunity,
which could be a significant factor. Furthermore, like if you look at toll-like receptor 2, which again, also codes for innate immunity. In healing wounds all of these are decreased versus non-healing wounds. So, in conclusion,
there's significant expression of different cytokines and chemokines of growth factors in venous leg ulcers and wound fluid. The cytokines and proteinases have different signatures with in the healing state of a venous leg ulcer.
An innate immunity is also involved in a venous leg ulcer inflammation and healing. These could be specific, potential markers, but also pathways and possible targeted therapy for venous leg ulcers. Thank you.
- Thank you very much, Frank, for the opportunity to be part of this fantastic panel. So, I'm no more a part of the debate, and I will not show the differences, but if we look on the arch, on the literature addressing the different types of repair, we can see that the result are in the same range, approximately.
And despite the fact that we didn't spoke about this, probably, there is a bias of selection where else the best patient will be addressed by open surgery, patient that fits for branched and FEVAR will be treated by those technology, and the remaining of the patient
is addressed by parallel grafts. There is a second point I would like to address and this is one part of my talk, is that the results for the endovascular options are not good, are not so long described in the literature. There are some papers with longer follow-up,
but in the mean, the follow-ups are rather short. So, let's go to our expanse that is a little bit longer. In the arch, we treated 94 patients. We had a mortality of 14% stroke, or neurological complication 8%, endoleak, primary, 18%, but we addressed 40% of acute patients,
and 50 patient with redo thoracic surgery. So, an example: 75 years old patient, he had complicated type B dissection with malperfusion, did get the TEVAR with a sandwich for the LSA. In the follow-up, he showed an aortic enlargement with the dissection extending proximal to the LSA,
and he had, again, and antegrade perfusion of the sur-lumen. He refused general anesthesia because he had severe delire when he was treated first. So we address this with periaortic grafts. We put one chimney for the brachiocephalic trunk in the aorta, one chimney for
the left carotid artery in the ascending aorta, then we deployed a TAG in the aorta then, to match the diameter of the BCT we extended the first viable, which is 13 mm, and you can see here, the six month follow-up with a nice result. So, if we want to go to long-term results,
we freezed a cohort of patient we treated 2009 to 2014. These are 41 patients with an Euroscore II of 28%, 68 years the mean age, 30 day mortality was 12%, so half of the predicted. You see here 42 months follow-up of this cohort. There is this typical mortality of 10% a year
following the procedure, due to the comorbidity cardiac pulmonary renal functions, freedom of branch occlusion is nice and the branch behaved stable. There have been reintervention during the follow-up, mainly to treat endoleaks, branch issues,
or other problems on this patient, but you see there is a three and a half year follow-up and the rate of reintervention is the same than for other endovascular options. Looking now at the more complex patients, the free vessel in the arch, you see
that the results here are good too, for the parallel grafts. Here down, we see one patient dying, no stroke, no endoleak. If we go to the visceral patient, here the literature review shows a mortality of 4.7%, with an endoleak type 1A of 7% for the parallel grafts. If we do compare now CHIMPS with FEVAR and open repair,
you can see that maybe the difference is more redo, but it's not really much more than for the FEVAR/BEVAR, and here is particularly due to the gutters. We treated here also for the long-term follow-up, we freezed a cohort of patient, 127 patient, 40% symptomatic, 11% ruptured patient.
Hostile chest, 37%, hostile abdomen, 26%. Most of the proximal landing was above the renal artery, mostly chimneys, but also reversed grafts and sandwich. Here a case, patient that was rejected after rupture from two centers to one because he was unfit for surgery, the other because he qualified not for FEVAR/BEVAR.
He had a challenging anatomy with an occluded left renal artery and celiac trunk, a shaggy arch and LSA, so we treated him transfemorally with two parallel grafts and you see the outcome of this patient. So, there are reinterventions. The mortality in this cohort is 2.4%, endoleak is 7%.
Reintervention, chimney-related, mainly gutter endoleaks. These are the curves in the follow-up, and you see that the results are similar than the patient in the arch with a need for reintervention, but that's the same for any kind of endovascular procedure in the arch.
18% at three years of reintervention. This has been for branch thrombosis or endoleak cages. So, in conclusion, the results are good for parallel grafts in the arch and in the visceral types, and selected patient, they need an appropriate anatomy, a life expectancy of two years.
They behave durable up to more than three years mean follow-up, taking into account the number of reintervention. The unsolved issue with the parallel graft is the gutter, so this technique can improve, and you can see here that they may be solution for the future.
This is an anti-gutter design from Endospan that really eliminates any kind of gutter endoleak and wandering, and this will be the patient cohort that we will compare with other repair technique in the future. Thank you very much for your attention.
- Folks always ask if you can do saphenous vein ablation in the presence of Deep Venous Obstruction. So, we'll talk about that a little bit. So, deep vein thrombosis, as we know, acutely, the danger, or the pulmonary embolus
is what we worry about anti-coagulation is the standard for that, but the longer fate of a DVT may be the post-thrombotic syndrome of which this is from scarring and valve damage, as we know. Mark Meissner showed us in this study back in '97
that more proximal DVT, femoral DVT fares worse than calf vein DVT as far as symptoms, and that goes out to about four years in this study. And we know that the worse actor of all is probably ileo femoral DVT,
so the more progressable the deep vein thrombosis, the greater the obstruction, the greater the symptoms. So, I always show, I like this study by Lois Killewich that she did back in 1989 basically showing the recanalization of deep vein thrombosis on a timeline.
And the message here is, that around three months, 86% of the recanalization has occurred. So, that's kind of my trigger as far as the earliest that I would even consider doing intervention on a post-thrombotic, would be at least three months to allow recanalization to occur.
We know that folks with, post thrombotic folks, do worse as far as receipt scores at five years if you compare primary deep veinous disease with post thrombotics, the post thrombotics fare poorly. And that's really the rationale between these
clot removal strategies in the ileo femoral segment to try and mitigate post-thrombotic syndrome. So, when you have a patient in front of you, the way I kind of line these things up, there going to be either obstruction dominant or reflux dominant.
You're not going to get a limb assymetry. A big, you know, one leg just clearly, larger than the other from saphenous vein reflux. It's just not going to happen. So, if you got true limb assymetry, and a saphenous vein that's 10mm and incompetent,
you're not going to improve their limb assymetry from saphenous vein ablation. So, you got to look at your indications. This patient should be looking for something ileo femoral that you can stent, but I don't think the saphenous is going to be much of a contribution.
The other thing, these folks don't have a lot of vericose veins they have more advanced skin damage. Whereas with reflux dominant, saphenous vein incompetent patient will usually present with vericose veins,
they won't have the limb assymetry, and that's why the C-3 gets a little hazy. It's swelling from superficial vein disease. It's usually just some fullness in the malleolus, maybe around the ankle, but you're not going to get full-blown edema
from saphenous vein incompetence. So, know why you're doing saphenous vein ablation. Not all refluxing saphenous veins need to be treated. Can you do saphenectomy in the presence of deep vein obstruction? We've shown this before.
This old Raju study that he did saphenectomy stripping in two groups, those with and without previous thrombosis, and they both did fairly well, did not seem to be impaired by the presence of obstruction.
This study by Puggioni on RFA ablation. She looked at some patients with DVT in a larger group that were all treated with RF ablation, and the bottom-line of her study was that RF ablation in patients with previous DVT is safe. Again, I wouldn't do it until after three months.
Does prophylactic anti-coagulation have any effect on post-thrombosis rates after saphenous vein ablation? Well, not in the study by Knipp. They used low molecular-weight heparin in folks going saphenous vein ablation, and it just increased the risk of bleeding,
and it had no effect on thrombosis. Can you do combined iliac vein stenting and saphenous vein ablation in the same setting? This is another iconic study by Neglen showed that, yes, you can. Patients with advanced disease
that underwent iliac vein stenting and saphenous vein ablation in the same operation had good symptom relief and very few complications. So, in conclusion, saphenous vein ablation may benefit
patients with previous DVT. Clearly, you're not going to do this in the acute phase of the DVT. When is it safe? I'd say the earliest you would do it, or even consider it is three months
because that's when recanalization starts to peak out. Limbs with concomitant superficial vein reflux and deep vein obstruction can be safely treated by combined treatment, at least in the Neglen series, and the DVT prophylaxis should be
administered at the surgeon's discretion. Thanks.
- So regarding fenestrated limbs, these are my disclosures. Typical scenario where you have a rather unwelcoming iliac, common iliac artery, you need around 16 millimeters at least to accommodate a branched graft in the iliac artery. You want to preserve the hypogastric flow.
In this case you also see a stenosis, so you need two things, ideally, to accommodate a branched device, which would be the diameter of 16 millimeters and also the angle of the artery. This is very pleasant to put in a branched device.
However, there are patients where you want to preserve the hypogastric blood flow, and in these cases, above the origin of the hypogastric artery, there is not enough room to open up a branched device, or the angle is very unfavorable
to put in a branched device. And here fenestrated iliac limbs come into play. These are usually made to measure, different lengths, different proximal and distal diameters and also you can place the single fenestration where it obviously is positioned best.
There are basically two, I think very useful indications. Here we can see a type 1B endoleak in a 13 millimeter limb. The distance to the hypogastric artery was not enough to have a full expansion
of the iliac limb, and therefore in this case if you want to preserve the hypogastric artery, which I would really strongly always recommend if possible, is to put in a fenestrated limb. But it's also really very helpful in these cases
is that you don't have to come from above, you can come from below and finish the whole procedure from below. So you have a full deployment of the endograft and then you'll put in a connecting stent graft
with obviously a very good seal and result. Most importantly, for complex cases as in this, for instance, patient who's had an open procedure 10 years previously and had further interventions with an over-stenting of the hypogastric on the right side and large thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm
as well as an anastomotic aneurysm on the left side, you really want to preserve the hypogastric artery. And you can also that actually it's an anastomotic aneurysm at the left side, so here a branched device certainly doesn't work. First, because it doesn't open up,
and second, the angle of the hypogastric is really very unfavorable. So again, you just put in your fenestrated device and then connect it from below with the stent graft in order to preserve the hypogastric blood flow of the last remaining hypogastric artery.
And also, obviously do something else to the rest of the patient, so this was a five branched endograft in a patient with two left kidneys. And also another case, you see actually on the angiography already the shaggy aorta,
so occlusion or seal at the distal origin of the common iliac just above the hypogastric is not really a good option, so we've re-over stented, or you do something about it. Now this is the case with a thoracic endograft
and a full-fen extension. So again, we really opt to preserve these hypogastrics as much as possible. So in conclusion, Mr. Chairman, (coughs) sorry ladies and gentlemen, fenestrated limbs are a good tool to preserve
hypogastric arteries. Now just to put it into perspective, is it common? No, we have around 30 branched iliac devices a year we implant, and we had all in all five fenestrated during the last two years.
So this is really a rare anatomical solution, but I believe it really is helpful. It's not an off-the-shelf device, so it takes around four weeks to produce, and the company's still not really decided how to price it, so we really can nicely negotiate it.
Thank you very much.
- Well that you very much and thanks for people showing up this morning. I have no disclosures. Popliteal entrapment syndrome is an uncommon disorder. It involves compression of the popliteal artery leading to symptoms of lower extremity ischemia. It's often seen in younger patients
and those that are athletes or soldiers, if you don't see these patients you may never see popliteal entrapment in your practice. As such it's often misdiagnosed and these patients would have seen numerous physicians prior to seeing you.
And there is no standard protocol for the diagnosis and treatment to assist some of the primary care providers in referring these patients. We think about the presentation of these patients, the systemic review of over 30 studies looking at popliteal entrapment
intermittent claudication was the most common presenting symptom. Acute ischemia occurred in 11% of the patients, and 15 of the 30 studies revealed a median of 13.5% of post-stenotic dilatation. And the median duration of the symptoms
was noted to be 12 months. So how do you optimize the diagnosis? It starts with the history, you need to have a high index of suspicion particularly in a young patient presenting with claudication and those that have acute ischemia as well.
The pulse evaluation with provocative maneuvers is another modality but that could be misleading. And then non-inva treadmill ABIs and duplex with provocative maneuvers. And on a duplex you could see the patient at rest
and a patient who you suspect has popliteal entrapment syndrome you will have compression of the popliteal artery that could be easily visualized. Axial imaging is another modality, MRI, MRA has been used. The majority of people will get that
to look for abnormal positioning of the popliteal artery as well as compression. And CTA which is readily available too but these are both reproducible, I think with the CTA in particular but they're both static imaging
and you can miss popliteal entrapment on this. Now provocative imaging is now being commonly employed with the MRI and CTA and Dr. Lee will talk about that, they have a very nice protocol at Stanford for the CT provocation. I still believe in arteriography for these patients,
I think you can obtain detailed vascular findings in the dynamic component, it is much easier to visualize versus static imaging. In addition we've been using IVUS for the last six to seven years to evaluate for interval changes
and to confirm the area of compression of the popliteal artery. And again these are your classic popliteal entrapment angios, the initial image you could see and the initial plantarflexion with prolonged plantarflexion
you can see complete effacement of the popliteal artery with outflow distally. Again, IVUS is another modality that we use, we believe in and I think the one thing is that sometimes these patients have had repetitive trauma,
the vessel may be injured and it'll allow you to understand whether a patient needs an interposition graft or to be cognizant of that after release. So the treatment options for popliteal entrapment, non-operative management's not common
and these are young active patients repetitive trauma to the artery can lead to limb threatening events but it mandates surveillance and those patients that don't want to have an operation they need to be surveyed
because they can have occlusion to the popliteal artery later on. Those that present later in life can be observed and told to curtail their activities but they need to be monitored again. Cause this is what you'll see,
patients who've had repetitive trauma will have an occluded popliteal artery that leads to an interposition graft later in life. The surgical approach, there's a medial approach and a posterior approach. The medial approach is advantageous
because most surgeons are comfortable with it. The disadvantage is you can't really visualize the popliteal artery as well. For the posterior approach the advantage is its excellent visualization of the popliteal fossa, the disadvantage is most people aren't
that comfortable with that but if you get used to the posterior approach you get to see these kinds of images and the detailed anatomy that you see as you're exposing the popliteal vein and the tibial nerve, and being able to dissect the popliteal artery
completely free that area. And really I think this is the way to go for popliteal entrapment. Optimizing treatment, we believe in intraoperative duplex in regards to functional popliteal entrapment which Dr. Lee will talk
more about, and their methods, but we use intraoperative duplex to confirm that we have adequate decompression. So we'll place the ultrasound probe over the popliteal artery and get a base line and neutral position duplex.
We'll then perform our clinical resection and after performing the clinical resection we'll repeat the intraoperative duplex. If there's still compression we will resect more muscle at that point until our duplex looks like there is no compression
and the velocities are stable. If you look at the operative results of a large series a lot of these report 100% return to prior level activity. You know the caveat to this is that they're young patients and the long term follow up is somewhat suspect. But there is 15% complication rate
and the majority are wound related. So new modalities, there are case reports of successful treatment with endovascular treatment but I wouldn't advocate for this cause it is a mechanical compression. Botulinum toxin has been reported
as well in a case series, you know again, there's not a lot of non-operative treatment for popliteal entrapment. So I think in conclusion, you need to optimize the diagnosis. Strong index of suspicion, dynamic imaging is important,
arteriography with IVUS is important, axial imaging based on your institution. To optimize the treatment a posterior approach allows for excellent exposure, and intraoperative duplex confirms adequate resection particularly for functional popliteal entrapment. Thank you.
- My disclosures are not relevant. Joe showed this slide, this is the original SVS guidelines, which really, as he mentioned, is a lesion-based evaluation of what the trauma looks like. And, for the purposes of this discussion, we'll be focusing on grade three injuries. Which really means there's blood outside the aortic wall.
There is loss of integrity of all layers and there's a pseudoaneurysm. We've all transitioned to delayed TEVAR for grade one and two. But, what do we do with these grade three injuries? Where's the boundary between medical therapy
that puts the patient at risk of interval rupture and early repair? Which may, as I'll show, put them at risk of other problems. This is a pretty widely adopted prac the idea of treating traumatic pseudoaneurysms,
at least initially, with some medical therapy. This is a review of 18 studies, almost 1,000 patients. It showed really one in five were managed non-operatively. There is a very low rate of aorta-related mortality which will be a recurring theme on all the data I show you. And, there's a really low rate
of required late interventions. As true for many of our trauma-related literature, there's a really poor long-term follow-up rate. The AAST studies have shown us that delayed repair really can improve outcomes. There's a significant selection bias in
these are non-randomized trials for, I think, exclusively. But the reality is, if a patient can wait until stabilization of their other injuries, they do better if you can wait on repairing the aorta, both mortality and the paraplegia rates are lower.
But, it's not just completely a selection bias. There are maybe some other benefit here. And, one of the things that plays into play is: What are their other injuries like? What is their traumatic brain injury look like? And, we use this as a defining point at Grady
about figuring out whether someone really should be figured for early repair or not. If you look at this series of 300 patients with traumatic aortic injury, 248 had a concomitant brain injury, and those are obviously of a variety of different grades,
from a little blip on the CT scan to a potentially devastating neurologic insult. But, it's not uncommon to have to manage both injuries at the same time. That is the rule rather than the exception. They can be pretty significant
and, again, there's significant selection bias in this series out of Maryland. But, there's about a one third, one third, one third early repair, delayed repair or non-operative strategy. If you look at the non-op patients and the delayed patients, you can see
that we get to that very, very low mortality rate. The early repair patients, as you can imagine, are often associated with a fatal outcome. Now, that fatal outcome is not always a it is usually related to something else
and highlights the selection bias of series like this one, that show us that if you're sick when you come in with an aortic tear, you're going to continue to be sick regardless of whether we fix your tear or not. But, there is some other benefit, potentially. The traumatic brain injury is one piece that I've mentioned,
but it's not uncommon, I think we've all experienced situations like this where the trauma physician and the orthopedic physician and everyone who is taking care of these patients is really focused on a grade three aortic injury. And, it oftentimes allows for neglect
or missing of other injuries that may be more life-threatening. How do we avoid delay? There's a few areas where we can think about intervening. The first thing is getting a good radiographic grade, as Joe alluded to, and there's a variety
of different scoring systems. This ultimately amounts to a simplification of the Harborview scoring system which is the one that I personally have gravitated to over the last two years. Which demonstrates that for the old grade one and two
there is probably no benefit of repeat imaging, there is probably no benefit of intervention, and pseudoaneurysms should be fixed when they are stable and severe ongoing-rupture patients should be fixed right away. That assessment of stability is an important part of this.
Part of Dr. Crawford's interest, in particular, was evaluating the size of the pseudoaneurysm and the size of the hematoma. And so, all of these are things that we've seen before but they all probably behave a little bit differently. So, how do we look and see:
Are there specific types of injury that are more prone to rupture with non-operative therapy? And one of the things that's been assessed is the diameter ratio. I think Joe showed this data a second ago. Another is the size of the periaortic hematoma.
In this large series, if you had two of these three factors: a lactate greater than four, a mediastinal hematoma greater than 10 millimeters or a lesion to normal aortic ratio of greater than 1.4. That was 90% accurate in terms of theoretically predicting early rupture.
Which, if you just look at clinical judgment alone, goes down to 65%. Keeping in mind that clinical rupture, true rupture is very often a fatal event. There is a lot of value in moving that number from 65 to 90. If we can get good modeling that tells us
who is at particularly high risk of rupture in this selected group, there is a lot of potential benefit. Just as importantly, as I've mentioned earlier, if you have a higher aortic grade of injury, you are more likely to die but it does not predict aorta-related mortality.
Much of that is the selection bias that people with higher grades of aortic injury are fixed sooner and therefore are not candidates to die from aorta-related mortality. Let's skip through this. And then again, (audience member coughing)
the idea that we need additional information and we need better imaging, better physiologic data that predicts the need for early repair is the take-home message. The answer, as you can imagine, is more information. Part of what the Aortic Trauma Foundation is doing
is going to be evaluating: Are patients really going to do better with non-operative therapy if they have very specific criteria that allows them to be selected out? Are there high-risk criteria that we can figure out besides just eyeballing the CT scan and saying:
This is someone who's not going to do well if we sit on them. Thank you very much.
- Yeah, thanks very much. Well, we've already heard that things were going well with the two first EVAS trials in the U.S and Europe predominantly, at one year and then we've seen those events described by both Jeff and Matt at two years. Root cause analysis refined IFU
and then prospectively studying this in the EVAS2 trial in the U.S but also in Europe and in the Asia-Pacific, in the Forward2 trial. I'm going to give you a little bit of an update. As we know there have been some concerning reports on retrospective reviews of experience in the early term,
and we've all heard about the details of the revised IFU, and the useful outcomes or grossly improved outcomes we can expect at two years and now Jeff has just told us at three years. Sorry, we'll just go back. So, as Matt mentioned, there have been several publications
that have retrospectively applied the IFU to center's experience to see if they could replicate the good outcomes that were achieved in the retrospective analysis of the IDE trial. Certainly, what is shown is that if you apply the revised IFU, you significantly reduce
patient applicability with this particular device. It has to be acknowledged that many of the procedures that were performed in these publications were performed, a) with a device that's different to the one that we're now going to use, and b) with a procedure that was very different.
It probably impacts on outcomes. I think the major difference with what we'll call the new Nellix device, is that it has the endobag attached firmly, not only to the top of the stent, but also at the bottom. And in our experience this attachment at the bottom
has had a particular impact on aneurysm sac size. The procedure has also evolved, and the procedure now involves steps such as unfurling of the endobags before stent deployment, and also pre-fill of the endobags with saline prior to filling with the polymer,
as well as the importance, as Matt mentioned, of accurately deploying and using all of the infrenal neck and the iliac sealing zones. We also performed a retrospective analysis of our experience in consecutive cases at Aukland Hospital with considerably longer follow-up.
And you can see that the patients on the modified IFU had a significantly different and improved freedom from type 1A endoleak, and also the composite end point of type one endoleak, sac expansion, and freedom from reintervention was highly significantly improved.
So that's a little bit different to the experience reported, possibly because we've been applying the optimized technique and had access to the new Nellix device for some time. So EVAS FORWARD 2 is being performed in Europe and in the Asia-Pacific region.
A 300-patient confirmatory trial with standard parameters. This is the very first case that was done. We did this in Aukland, and you can see something we weren't observing with the earlier Nellix device without the distal seal. We're seeing some cases with significant sac shrinkage.
You can see the earlier, or interim results, I'm just presenting for the first time here today from the FORWARD 2 trial. A very high freedom from type 1A endoleak, and freedom from reintervention, as of July 2018. Just out of interest, we also did a retrospective review
of patients in our own center that has had at least one year of follow-up using the new Nellix device with optimized procedures to see what the outcome would be, and you can see at one year that there's no type one endoleaks. Impressively, absolutely no migration.
We have seen at two years a couple of patients that had some sac growth. Even on IFU we felt that they had degeneration of their iliac arteries with loss of seal. Here you can see a case where you can see the dramatic sac shrinkage we're now seeing
in some cases, and this is the one where we saw some sac growth where we ended up doing a second reintervention to extend the distal seal. Of course, the real driver for us to continue with the Nellix and EVAS technology is this suggestive but very impressive freedom
from all cause in cardiovascular mortality. That really is driving us to use this technology in our patients. So in conclusion, we'll know that, in fact, there's ongoing evolution of this technology, and we're looking forward to being involved
in next generation EVAS that will follow the important EVAS2 and EVAS FORWARD trials sometime later in 2019. Thanks very much. (applause)
- Thank you to the committee and Dr. Veith for inviting me to speak today. Here are my disclosures. Over the past several years there's been a large increase in the wave of opioid overdose deaths in both heroin and prescribed narcotics in the US. Infected pseudoaneurysms are a terrible problem
resulting from this that vascular surgeons are seeing more increasingly. With this increase in IVDA use, we want to evaluate the trends in the increase and treatment of groin pseudoaneurysms and we used the National Inpatient Sample.
This looked over ten years from 2004 to 2014. Patients with a primary diagnosis of aneurysm or pseudoaneurysm, as well as different ICD-9 codes which were related to drug abuse. Looking at these data from 2004 to 2014, there was a large increase in the diagnoses
of pseudoaneurysms in IV drug abusers. Looking at the demographics of these patients, around 75% of these were white males with the average age of 45. This data, the location was mostly the West, hospital type was usually at an urban teaching hospital. Only 15% of these patients had private insurance.
Most of them were Medicaid, self-pay or no charge. As far as operative approach, and again, this is from a large database using codes, the resection of vessel with replacement had the highest increase, but there was an increase in all the operative approaches, including vascular shunt or bypass or aneurysm repair.
Which leads us to the question of what's the optimal therapy for IV drug abuse mycotic pseudoaneurysms? There's several surgical options, including ligation debridement with non-selective revascularization, ligation debridement of the aneurysm with selective revascularization, just ligation and excision and the
possibility of stents has been brought to attention recently. This study from Iran looked at 41 patients who were IV drug abusers with infected pseudoaneurysms. Of these patients, 32 patients were primarily ligated and nine patients were ligated with revascularization.
Of those patients, the ligation and excision, there were nine of 32 patients had complications and there was one amputation in this study. With a ligation and early revascularization, six out of nine patients had complications and there were three early graph failures.
These patients were only followed up to nine months. Of note, in this population, studies are often poor as the follow-up, as you can imagine, at these institutions is not very good. This study from Dr. Padberg and Hobson's group from the early 90's looked at performing
selective revascularization and using external iliac clamping to assess distal flow with a hand-held doppler, although further studies have looked at use of pulse oximetry as well. If there was a dopplerable signal, they felt there was no need to reconstruct at the time of surgery.
Using these methods, six patients had just a ligation with no mortality, no re-operations. Twelve of the 18 patients had a revascularization as well, and there were three amputations, no mortality. There are other extra-anatomic ways to reconstruct. Dr. Caligaro will describe the lateral tunneling
in a further talk in this session. An obturator bypass is another good option. Axel popliteal bypasses have also been described by Dr. Veith and his group several years ago. A new method that I've used instead of external iliac artery clamping is getting
proximal control from the contralateral groin. I usually get a CTA on these patients and use a 8 to 12 millimeter ballon, which often saves a retroperitoneal incision. As far a stenting, there's some, few studies looking at the use of stent in this patient population.
This study from China, 29 patients with pseudoaneurysms in SFA were treated with a covered stent. There was only short-term follow-up, but there was no amputation, no pain in these patients. And five patients continued to inject at the site. Here's another small case series describing
a retrograde stenting after a cutdown on the SFA into the common femoral artery, and they had two patients in the series with no complications over two years. Conclusion, IV drug abuse is on the rise and we're seeing more of the pseudoaneurysms that we'll need to treat. The data is difficult, but ligation may be the
best outcomes if there is a dopplerable signal. And for an absolute emergency, stenting may be used, however, on these young, non-compliant patients it is unlikely to be a good long-term option. Thank you.
- Thank you friends who have invited me again. I have nothing to disclose. And we already have published that as far as the MFM could be assumed safe and effective for thoracoabdominal aneurysm when used according to the instruction for use at one, three, and four years. Now, the question I'm going to treat now,
is there a place for the MFM? Since 2008, there were more than 110 paper published and more than 3500 patient treated. 9 percent of which amongst the total of published papers relating the use of the MFM for aortic dissections. So, we went back to our first patients.
It was a 40 year old male Jehovah Witness that I operated in 2003 of Type A dissection and repair with the MFM in 2010 because he had 11 centimeter false aneurysm. Due to his dissection, this patient was last to follow up because he was taking care full time off of
his severe debilitated son. When we checked him, the aneurysm seven years later shrunk from 11 to 4 centimeters wide. And he's doing perfectly well. Then the first patient we treated seven years ago, same patient with Professor Chocron
Type A dissection dissection repair in 2006. Type B treated with MFM in 2010. We already published that at one year that the patient was doing fine. But now, at three and seven years, the patient was totally cured.
The left renal artery was perfused retrogradely by aspiration. That's a principle that has been described through the left iliac artery. So what's next? Next there was this registry
that has been published and out of 38 patients 12 months follow up, there were no paraplegia, no stroke, no renal impairment, and no visceral insult. And at 12 month the results looked superior
to INSTEAD, IRAD and ABSORB studies. This is the most important slide to us because when you look at the results of this registry, we had 2.6 percent mortality at 30 days versus 11 30 and 30.7 no paraplegia, no renal failure, and no stroke vessel
13 to 12.5. 33 and 34 and 13 and 11.8 percent. With a positive aortic remodeling occurring over time with diminishing the true lumen increasing the true lumen and increasing the false lumen.
And so the next time, the next step, was to design an international, multicenter, prospective, non-randomized study. To treat, to use the MFM, to treat the chronic type B aortic dissection. So out of 22 patients to date,
we had mainly type B and one type A with no dissection, no paraplegia, no stroke, no renal impairment, no loss of branch patency, no rupture, no device failure, with an increase in true lumen and decrease in false lumen that was true at discharge.
That was true at one, three, and six and 12 month. And in regards with the branch occluded from the parts or the branches were maintained patent at 12 and all along those studies. So, of course these results need to be confirmed in a larger series and at longer follow up,
yet the MFM seems to induce positive aortic remodeling, is able to keep all branches patent during follow-up, has been used safely in chronic, acute, and subacute type B and one type A dissection as well. When we think about type B dissection, it is not a benign disease.
It carries at 20 percent when it's complicated mortality by day 2 and 25 percent by day 30. 30 percent of aortic dissection are complicated, with only 50 percent survival in hospital. So, TEVAR induces positive aortic remodeling, but still causes a significant 30 day mortality,
paraplegia event, and renal failure and stroke. And the MFM has stabilized decreased the false lumen and increase the true lumen. Keeps all the branch patent, favorize positive aortic remodeling. So based on these data, ladies and gentleman,
we suggest that the MFM repair should be considered for patients with aortic dissection. Thank you very much.
- Well, if fenestrated EVAR is so great, why isn't everyone doing it? And I would submit it has to do with the planning. If you have a perfectly planned procedure, the procedure will go perfectly. These are my disclosures, which are directly related to this presentation.
This is a case that was planned using AortaFit software and it was a case that we identified as being a perfect plan. We went back and looked at our fellow and resident in our training program who we trained to plan these procedures and asked them to plan this case.
Our first trainee submitted the following plan. And when we line up the SMA, we lose the left renal on this plan. We then asked our fellow to plan the case and she provided this plan.
When we line up the SMA on this case we lose the right renal. So, it tells us that there is tremendous variability in human planning. We participate in the VQI in the Pacific Northwest Regional group,
and we perform 88% of the complex EVAR in our region. And we have the lowest procedure times, the lowest estimated blood loss compared to the rest of the nation, the lowest in post-operative complications, excluding death, and the lowest in composite outcomes to include major cardiac events.
We also have the highest rate of return of our patients to a pre-surgical care setting. So how have we achieved this? Using AortaFit software, we are able to take a standard DICOM data set of a juxtarenal aneurysm patient and create a volume rendering.
We can then display the images in an axial, sagittal, and coronal view for the user. All that the user needs to do is to identify the target vessels and to plant seed points into those target vessels, the target vessels that are selected to be preserved.
What is then output from the software is a segmentation. And you see the segmented image here, but the magic of the software is that it does the automatic adjustment of the centerline using polynomial equations and goodness of fit. We can superimpose 2D slices over this to check
our orientation of the fenestrations and look at the plugs. And what's output is a graft plan that can either be given to the physician in the form of a 3D printed template or placed on the back of a manufacturing line. Sorry. So, for the physician, an STL file can be produced
to create a 3D printed template to create a physician-modified endograft, but what we really want is to be able to provide the manufacturer with a detailed plan using this software. This is an example of a Terumo Aortic TREO device. We've now done 37 of these cases.
This is a graft that has wide amplitude stents and a large amount of real estate for fenestration. So you can see inserting this 3D printed template that was created using AortaFit software. We can rotate this graft, move it in and out to find the sweet spot
for those fenestrations, and to create a truly customized device for the patient. We then, all that we have to do at that point is to line up the SMA. So you can see, on the panel on the left, we do our first aortogram
prior to deploying the stent graft. We deploy that SMA fenestration, the renals automatically align. We then select our renal arteries and then our fellows know that it's time to call for the next patient because the procedure is essentially done at that point.
This is a cone beam CT of that very first patient that I showed you, showing perfect alignment of all of the fenestrations and target vessels. And here's a 30-day follow-up CT scan, that if you pay attention and look carefully, you can see that all of the fenestrations
are perfectly aligned. There's about four centimeters of seals on length, and lack of endoleak and a successful result in this patient. This, fortunately, is published in this month's Journal of Vascular Surgery as an editor's choice.
And in summary, the long-term durability of fenestrated EVAR has been established, but planning and procedural complexity limits widespread adoption. Automated planning software, we believe, provides efficient and accurate graft plans for the physician
or endograft manufacturer. Well-planned grafts simplify branch access and the procedure and I think will increase fenestrated EVAR utilization. And simplified FEVAR may benefit the majority of patients harboring juxtarenal aneurysms and even standard infrarenal aneurysms and may be the best therapeutic option.
- Thank you for the introduction and for the invitation. And the subject and no disclosures for this. The subject to start with an unusual case. Patient treated for a symptomatic thoracic dys-dissection with a TEVAR. Two months later he had some mild hematemases, some air in this anarhythm sac and fever
and on esophagus scope he had a lesion in his esophagus. Then he was referred to us, we continued antibiotic therapy and, against our thoughts, this esophagus lesion healed spontaneously. And on this CT scan there was no air anymore, but there was progression of his dissection
distal to the stent graft, so we still decided to do an open conversion and take out the stent graft in the aorta. And there was no sign of lesion of the esophagus. We used bovine periocardial patch, which was our choice. And on post-operative CT scan, it looks like
this and he had a well recovery. And again, three years later after his repair of his ascending arch, he's still doing fine without problems with his esophagus. In the recent literature we see more aortic use of growth fistulas in the TEVAR period
and probably has to do something with the radial force and pressure necrosis, but also occlusion of the side branches feeding the aorta. In a European complication registry on TEVAR, we see the incidence is about 1.5 percent of this complication, and you see it happen
mostly in aneurysms and normal degenerative in the descending thoracic aorta. But a lot of them are emergency and include immediestial hematoma. Most present with fever and hematemeses and that's the way to recognize them.
In a review from our department, we looked at the treatment options, and of course, there is a huge selection bias in patient selection. But you see there is no place for conservative treatment because it has no survival rate. Esophagectomy and aortic replacement, still high mortality,
but the only treatment with some survival options. Of course, that's not the first treatment if you present with massive hematemeses. In the old days we used to put a stent, a Sengstaken tube in it, but now it's more controlling the bleeding by a redo TEVAR procedure.
And if the patient survives, plan definitive treatment, which in our opinion is primary resection of the esophagus, debridement of the contaminated tissues, including the aorta and the TEVAR or allografts inside and reconstruction of the aorta. And in our choice, it's a tube graft created
with bovine pericardial patches. If it's only a descending thoracic aorta and left anterior lateral thoracotomy, we'll do, but in some cases there is also already a graft in the ascending aortic arch and then a bilateral anterior thoractomy,
clam-shell procedure is a nice way to be there. And then you can either anatomically or extra-anatommically reconstruct this kind of anatomy. So, in conclusion, post TEVAR aorto-esophageal fistula is lethal, something which, especially in conservative treatment, if you drain, rinse, pray, and hope,
it's no option for the patient. So surgical strategy is stop the bleeding by TEVAR and resect the esophagus. Full debridement of all contaminated tissue and in situ reconstruction of the aorta. So radical approach, in our opinion,
is the only durable solution, thank you. - [Host] Okay, thank you.
- (Speaker) Thank you very much So we're going to try to tackle all of these issues. I do have some disclosures. The indigo system that we're going to talk about does have FDA approval in the vascular system. It is contraindicated for neurovascular and coronary use although there are specific catheters made by this company
for use in those areas, so we're going to talk about the use strictly in the periphery. So we know that Acute Limb Ischemia requires revascularization and we use this Power Aspiration system, we call it XTRACT, using the Indigo system for a number of different therapeutic options.
The device we're talking about, these are reinforced catheters so there's no collapsing of the tip during aspiration. They're atraumatic, this technology was developed and really pirated in some way from stroke work, where we were putting these catheters in the
middle cerebral artery, so these catheters track, it's exceptionally rare to see any vessel damage. We have not dissected any vessels in over 120 cases. The catheters are hooked up to direct tubing to a small handheld pump,
which is easy to use, which sucks, an essentially true vacuum, so that you get maximal aspiration. And, they come in different sizes: 3, 5, 6, and 8 French and you can see there's a large increase in aspiration power as we go up
in size. So this would be a typical case where we have an SFA occlusion, in the distal SFA. There's also a TP trunk occlusion. There's an anterior tib. which is a stump distally. And we don't see any real flow below the TP trunk.
Here we can take a CAT6, we place it in the clot. It's very simple to use. The learning curve here is extremely low. You turn the vacuum on, you just be patient and wait. You don't run this through the clot, and if you suck this way and be patient,
embolization is extremely rare, and I'll show you some of that data. We clean that up as I showed you, then we advance down into this tibioperoneal trunk, and after two or three minutes of aspiration with some gentle catheter moving,
we're able to clear up the TP trunk, we can come back and balloon the underlying lesions and leave this patient who had no runoff, essentially with two vessel runoff. In Press right now, we're actually online, published, and in print, are the results of the PRISM trial,
which is using this system as a retrospective registry, and this is used in 79 patients after failed thrombolysis, as a primary device for acute limb ischemia, for distal emboli caused by other interventional procedures such as angioplasty stem placement.
We looked at patients who had little flow or no flow, TIMI 0-1, and basically we evaluated the flow before. We use this system after we use the system and after any other adjunctive intervention. And along the bottom you can see that we restored flow,
excellent flow, TIMI 2 or 3 flow, and 87% percent of the patients, after the final intervention, so treating the underlying lesion, 96% of patients had essentially normal flow. So, 87% as I say success
just with the device alone, and then using adjunct devices. There were no serious adverse events. The complications from this include vasospasm. We did not have any vessel dissections, or vascular injuries, and
no serious event directly related to the catheter. So where do we use this? Well, we can use this as I mentioned for acute limb ischemia. We can use it as a primary therapy for embolic occlusions. We can use it after iatrogenic emboli.
We use it after incomplete thrombolysis when there's residual clot, so we don't have to lyse someone up further. We can save lysis time and money overnight. And we've expanded our uses out of the arterial and now we're looking at venous, pulmonary, mesenteric,
and dialysis applications. We just published our results in the pulmonary circulation from the single center. There's a retrospective study that's been completed, and now a prospective study which we're just beginning right now.
We actually have our first sites up and ready. We've had experience with DVT, and we're also using this in the mesenteric and portal circulation. A quick image of a before and after on a pulmonary embolism. There's an extensive mass of patient who came in with profound hypotension,
post-using the XTRACT system. So the benefits, simple and easy to use, highly trackable. Limitations, blood loss if you don't know how to use this right. You just can't run this vacuum in flowing blood. Once you learn that and control the switch
blood loss can be minimized. As I mentioned, the learning curve is small. A few tips, not to use the separator much in the arterial system. Just be patient with your suction. Be careful damaging the tip when you introduce it
through the sheath, there's an introducer. In conclusion, we think this is an effective method to primarily treat arterial occlusions, venous pulmonary occlusions, and more data will be coming to you on the venous and pulmonary sides but I think in the arterial side,
we actually have several publications out, demonstrating safety and ethicacy. Thank you.
- Thank you Mr. Chairman. Thank you, Dr. Veith for you kind invitation. Okay, there we go. Excuse me. DEVASS stands for Dutch EVAS study Group. We all know that women have a twofold, increased risk frequency of rupture.
The average aortic size at rupture is five millimeters smaller. They have a higher rate of undiagnosed cardiovascular diseases. They have smaller ileofemo
more concomitant iliac aneurysms They have a more challenging aortic neck. Smaller proportion is eligible for EVAR and, therefore less likely to meet EVAR IFU. They have a longer length of hospital stay after EVAR, a higher re-admission rate, more major complications,
a higher mortality rate. So, women and AAA is a challenging combination. The rationale behind EVAS is known to you all, I think. The DEVASS cohort is from three high volume centers in The Netherlands. It's a retrospective cohort of 355 patients,
included from April, 2013 to December 2015. So I have two years of result data. If you look at the baseline characteristics, 45 females were in this cohort, with the age of 76 and with some known comorbidities. They were within the instructions for use of 2013, at 28.9%
and even less in the IFU of 2016. These are some more anatomical characteristics with the AAA outer diameter 5.6 centimeters. This is the procedure, most of the patients were under general anesthesia, with the cutdown and the procedure time
was about 100 minute. Straight forward procedure 33 cases out of these 45. Let's have a quick look at the clinical outcomes. The re-intervention's done in the first 12 month. One patient had to conversion to open repair at month 11 due to type 1A Endoleak, and the others were not directly
related to the procedure itself. Although, there was thrombus in approximate stand. In the second month we saw, in the second year we saw some more type 1A migrations and a Stenosis that needed relining, and two out of these patients were within IFU.
If you look at the total cohort of type 1A Endoleak, one patient was not operated on and the other were, either open conversion or relining, and one patient was within IFU. A quick look at the death characteristics. Only one patient was within IFU,
and died after open procedure. So the re-interventions, once again, the first year four patients, in the second year five patients. Conversion to open repair, in total three patients. Endovascular re-intervention was performed
in the first year in two patients and in the second year there were three relinings performed. Endoleak 1A, in total six as stated before. No type two Endoleak reported, and in the first year five patients died, which one was aneurisym related, as in the second year, two patients died,
which one was aneurysm related. If we compare this data with the EVAS Global data, of two years not the three year data, this is the freedom from all persistent Endoleak, close to 98% which is good. Freedom from type 1A Endoleak is within IFU, 97% in the global and outside IFU 85%,
and remind these patients 71% were outside IFU. Freedom from secondary interventions, we had to re-intervene in nine patients and its comparable with outside IFU. Freedom from mortality at two years, a bit higher, aneurism related mortality is 95% which is higher, and also the all cost mortality is higher in women.
So to conclude, this is the first cohort that focuses on women after EVAS. The majority of the patients was outside IFU, and as in EVAR women do not that very good in result, appear to be very much like an EVAR. Thank you.
- Thank you, Kieth, and thanks, Frank, for the kind invitation. So, we have dealt with about 34 of infected aortic graft pathology in our center, and performed 19 femoral vein neo-aortas, which I'm going to talk about it today. As you can see, majority of them had staph,
or strep infection and a significant number also salmonella. So the procedure starts by harvesting the femoral vein, and some of the steps have already been shown to you by Jim. The important thing is to make sure that the branches are all looked for, dissected nicely, and sutured,
so that there's no leak, when you actually construct the graft. The sartorius is mobilized, and under the sartorius the femoral vein is dissected all the way up to the profunda junction. You want to make sure that the profunda drainage
into the common femoral vein is preserved. And the distal limit has to be limited to the superior genicular venous branches so that the popliteal connections are all maintained, and this is how it looks on the top end, after you have done it.
On doing a replacement for the whole aorta, then my preferred technique is to harvest both sides, femoral veins and the right side is also done in a similar fashion. And here, again, profunda is preserved and both femoral veins are then lined up
and they are, any other branches which have escaped are then oversewed. And the direction of the vein is then determined so that you can create anastomosis with the two veins. So once all the branches have been relegated the veins are then incised and spatulated
to make the anastomosis with each other, creating a bifurcated graft. The important thing is to have a really good, watertight suturing and once this is done, you have a nice bifurcated graft. The other thing to be very careful,
is not to take too much tissue at the lower junction here, so that the lumen is not narrowed. I take sutures quite close by, rather than the usual .5 millimeter, I take .3 or less and make it as watertight as possible.
Then we test it for leakages, and once we are satisfied, we go over to the aorta. Here we dissect our, this is a mycotic aneurysm that we have done and here the aorta, aortic, first the iliac arteries are mobilized and I then mobilize the opposite
common iliac artery, as well. Once both of these are clamped, we go over to the neck. And this is clamping the common iliac arteries. Then we go over to the neck, and we clamp the neck of the aneurysm.
The infected tissue, which is very adherent, is then mobilized to open the aorta, and once the aorta is open, the neck is identified and we start off approximal anastomosis. Just in the same fashion as my previous speaker alluded, we put stitches starting at three o'clock
and then going posteriorly, and then coming anteriorly and going laterally, to complete the anastomosis. And once this is done the patency is tested, and whatever leaks are repaired. And then the distal anastomosis is done.
And this is how it looks at the end. This has worked very well for us. And this is how it looks on follow-up, this a MR angiogram which is a good incorporation of the neo-aorta and also the venous side, you see a good Profundization.
So femoral neo-aorta is a viable option and it can be performed with low mortality and morbidity. Thank you.
- Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Thank you, Dr. Veith for inviting again to this great meeting. It's my disclosures. Well, as we know and heard this meeting, there are some certain limitations of current EVAR (mumbles) anatomical procedure and economical reasons,
and I would like to present a relatively new device which may address current EVAR limitations with a simple low profile system, and basically, ALTURA consists of two parallel stent graft systems. ZEUS No Gate Cannulation is needed and unique features include D-shaped proximal stents
and suprarenal fixation. Multi-purpose (mumbles) possibilities as well, and the system of utilize 14 French delivery system. And as aortic components can be deployed offset to accommodate the offset renals, and then the limbs are also unique
because they're deployed retrograde from distal proximally, and this allows precise positioning, both proximally and distally. Well, as the ALTURA clinical experience includes the very first human implants as well as more recent case performed
with a fully commercial device, and a total of 90 patients with a AAA were enrolled between 2011 and 2015, and follow-ups are taken at 30 days, six months, and annually to five years, and this presentation gives a current status of follow-up, and our results with a 12-month follow-up were published earlier this year.
Our clinical data were collected in total of in 11 sites. It includes 90 patients. And you see here, the patient demographics and anatomy do a typical, which are typical for all EVAR patients and the mean follow-up was 2.7 years. And procedure of success was 99%.
Only one patient, one of the first patient was Gen1 was not implanted, and 50% patients were done percutaneously, and majority of them underwent regional or local anesthesia. So when you look into the results, we see that there was only one case of AAA ruptured,
which occurred at three years due to type II endoleak and sac enlargement as the patient, which refused treatment due to type II endoleak. And all other deaths are paired to no original causes, and two patients had device migration at two years. The same patients appear at three-year period,
and basically these were undersized grafts was sort of our learning curve, and there was no any migration later on. Four patients had type I endoleaks visible on CT, and read by independent committee between 30 days and one year.
None have required secondary treatment and have been no aneurysm enlargement observed. And at one year, not surprisingly for this kind of devices, there was 17% type to endoleaks, but only one patient required secondary procedure due significant sac expansion.
Well, wasn't, of course, what we saw, I expected majority of patients has had shrinkage. There was a four-year period. And this is a patient who was recorded with the type IA endoleak at 30 days, caused by the last calcified nodule,
as you he's here probably none of the other device would tolerate that, but the endoleak did not extended into into the sac and had a leak result spontaneously without sac enlargement through a four-year follow-up period, as we're seeing here. Well, here another patient with type IB endoleak,
due to (mumbles) generation was treated with coils and glue an extension with additional stent graft to external iliac artery. What's interesting was the device. Device can tolerate small distal aortas and five patients who were treated
with small distal aortas and the very first patient was not dilated enough and stents were not deployed, simultaneously causing some stenosis which was easily treated with PTA afterwards, so we learned but it's very great, unique feature to treat the small distal aortas for the device.
And of course, sensing what happening with them, septal endoleaks, because everybody being concerned what happening with that, and nevertheless, there were no septal endoleaks observed during the follow-up period. In conclusion, Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen,
I would like to say this Novel Altura endograft concept has potential to play major role in mainstream EVAR cases and potential benefits include predictability, reposition ability to place the device very, very, very precisely, offset renals, to maximize use of the neck, and low profile
overcomes current and anatomic limitations like tortuous iliacs, narrow bifurcation or access vessels and no limbic inhalation is needed, and basically, I truly believe that this offers option for EVAR day surgery and ruptured aneurysms. Of course, first results are very encouraging.
We need more data. Thank you very much.
- So this talk is similar to Professor Vermossin in that we're trying to establish again the idea that EVAR is really the choice of treatment here, especially for patients who can't undergo an Open Repair. I have no disclosures. So why does this even come up? Well, as we know the DREAM trial very nicely elegantly
show that early on there was a mortality benefit of EVAR over Open Repair, but out to two years that mortality benefit was lost and the curves began to meet and equilibrate. And when you look at the EVAR 1 study, when you get out to eight years,
those curves actually invert and the all cause mortality for Open Repair was actually beneficial as compared to EVAR. And so it becomes a question, based on somebody's RCT or whether or not Open Repair is really the better way to go. But at least for this discussion we're talking about
a select group of patients. Those patients who are unfit for Open Repair. Multiple comorbidities, high frailty index. Totally different population than the overall cohort. And so when you go back to EVAR 1 and you look at it, these patients, these frail patients,
lot of comorbidities. They're the ones who would exactly benefit from that early aneurysm or early all cause mortality benefit from EVAR, 'cause these are the patients that may not life to meet that eight year crossover point.
In addition, there's been a lot of temporal changes in terms of EVAR. There's evolving technology and there's evolving techniques. The devices are lower profile. They have better durability.
It's easier and more precise in terms of delivery and implantation for these devices as well now. Moreover the techniques have evolved significantly. We're doing almost all these percutaneously. There's very rarely a situation where you need to cut down. The procedures are done very quickly now.
A lot of them are done in less than an hour. And there's avoidance at least of major pitfalls, I mean, the last time I've heard about an iliac artery disruption was probably five or six years ago. This type of large complication rarely occurs anymore. And this study from the Mayo Clinic corroborates this.
When they look at their series of patients who had Open Repair and EVAR, the top graph is basically those patients who were treated from 2006 or earlier. The bottom graph is the patients treated from 2005 or later. And you can see the mortality benefit from Open Repair basically disappears in the lower graph
and that cohort that's treated later. Again, kind of corroborating that techniques and devices have changed, improving EVAR's survivability. And this paper looks at the NSQIP database and says basically the same thing. That contemporary 30 day mortality after EVAR
in high risk patients is substantially lower than that reported in EVAR 2 trial. So gain, demonstrating and showing a picture of EVAR with better survivability and the data that's come out from these earlier trials in terms of EVAR mortality is not necessarily translatable to current day.
So, what we are expecting for EVAR? Well, I think really, two things. You want prevention of death from the aneurism and you want a quality of life. I mean, quality of life is important. These patients come in and expect to be able
to be back on their feet shortly after the procedure. And when you look at the EVAR 2 long term survival, aneurism related mortality is improved over Open Repair out to 12 years. And then when you look at the improved data, the quality of life was significantly better
for EVAR versus that of Open Repair. But I wanted to just kind of get you to shift and look at it from a different perspective and not just see it from what EVAR is in terms of beneficial, how it's changed and how the survivability is improved.
But really what are the expectations in terms if Open Repair? What is the patient tolerance? What are the training and what are the volume paradigms in today's day and age? Well clearly, when you look at these two things
percutaneous, especially the access to the groin, is going to be infinitely better tolerated than an open incision, whether it be transperitoneal or retroperitoneal. So clearly there's a benefit of EVAR in terms of that. But more importantly, we know that the,
historically we've shown that high volume centers and high volume surgeons have better results for Open Repair. And without question, the more you do, the better you're going to get at it. And so, when you look at that in conjunction
with these types of data where clearly the numbers of Open Repair through the country are reducing dramatically and continue to decline. We looked at this and this was a slide of EVAR, which was the positive slope, and Open Repair, which is a negative slope,
in terms of trainees graduating. And that ended in 2010. That slope continued to be negative. When you put those two together, you realize that people are coming out with less and less Open training.
Their experience with Open Repair is only declining and when you contrast that with EVAR, which is improving technology and techniques, it becomes obvious that in certain circumstances I think the randomized control data can no longer be looked at and you have really just think about
EVAR as the best treatment for these patients. Thank you.
- I think that the most important tip cannot really be summarized in five minutes, which is that these procedures are highly dependent on how well you plan the procedure and how well you really implant the device. That is a fairly long learning curve that I think you need to actually collaborate with people
that they are experienced, and with industry to make sure that you are on the right track on making your measurements to size these devices. But there are a few things to be said about cases that are very difficult, and a few tips that I would highlight on this talk.
First, it's highly important that you build up your inventory so you can get out of trouble. I think you have to have a variety of catheters of your choice, with primary or secondary curves.
The addition of shapeable guides has been a major benefit for these types of procedures. They are fairly expensive, so I would say we don't use them routinely, but they can bail you out. They can allow you to do cases now from the femoral approach that in the past could not be achievable this way.
You have to be able to work on the diffe .035 system, .014 system, .018 system, and know when to apply this. I would like to highlight four maneuvers that we use when vessels don't align.
First, a common maneuver is really not to try to get in a quote/unquote pissing match with the fenestration and the vessel. If you can catheterize the fenestration first, and advance your sheath upwards, and lead a .018 wire into the sheath,
that will basically lock your sheath into the fenestration. Therefore, you don't have to repeatedly catheterize the fenestration and you save a lot of time. You can choose y ose something that has a secondary curve if you have room,
or a Venture 3 catheter, which is one of my choice for catheterization, and you can see here that on this case, the difficulties imposed by a shelf on the ostia of the renal artery, which makes catheterization more difficult. This .018 wire also allows you to bend your sheath
as a guide catheter so that you can achieve a downward curve to catheterize a down-going vessel, like on this renal artery. The second maneuver to highlight is that these devices are constrained posteriorly, and therefore, the fenestrations are naturally moved
posteriorly into the aorta. So one of the first maneuvers is really to try to move the fenestration more anteriorly by rotating the device. Now, some of the companies now have newer constraining mechanisms
that may alleviate some of this, but this is kind of a next maneuver that we do. Finally, rarely nowadays we have to really find more space between the fenestration and the aortic wall, but it is always useful to leave behind a wire when you deploy this device so that in the event
that you need more space, you can perhaps navigate the catheter, inflate, and create some space between the fabric and the aortic wall. Marcelo Ferreira, along with other collaborators, has described a technique that I think is very useful when you have a lot of space.
That's the case, for example, of a directional branch or perhaps if you are using fenestration to target a vessel that is somewhat away from the fabric of the endograft. That's called the snare ride technique. This is summarized on this illustration.
When you see the left renal artery to be up-going, now being targeted from the brachial approach, that was difficult to catheterize, you catheterize that from the femoral approach with an eight French sheath and a snare ride type... You snare the wire from the arm, and then you can
navigate that catheter inwards into the vessel. That can be difficult, sometimes, to actually advance the snare into the vessel. I think that there is some improvement on the profile of these snares that can improve that, but that is a very useful technique,
not only for branches, but also for fenestrations. Finally, sometimes you have too much space. You may seem you are very well aligned on the latitude with the vessel, but in fact, there is so much space the device got displaced on that sac and you cannot simply catheterize the vessel.
It's useful to downsize the system on these cases to a micro-catheter with a micro-wire to find yourself in the sac eventually out through the vessel. Once you achieve that, you would then exchange this micro-wire, usually a glide gold wire, to a .018,
a stiffer wire that is long enough. You advance a balloon that is undersized for that vessel, and with that you can straighten the system and eventually switch that for a wire that is of reasonable strength, such as a rosen wire in this case, and complete the case.
Finally, there is nothing wrong about leaving the battle to be fought another day. It's better to finish a case a little quicker and not end up with leg ischemia and a compartment syndrome and a s the situation
and come back another day. This is a case, for example, that I did a branch endograft. You can see the right renal artery is exceedingly narrowed. I could not find a way in in a reasonable time. I gave myself about half an hour. I decided to quit.
A few days later, I came back through a subcostal incision, got retrograde access, and this literally was a case that didn't take very long and end up doing very well. So in summary, patie select your proper
anticipat stent. To offset these challenges, minimize contrast a master your endovas
it is better to end with a patient alive and fight the battle another day, than to have an excessive long procedure leading to numerous other complications. Thank you very much.
- Okay, thank you. We know that inflammatory AAA have quite low incidence. The main problem is related to the thickness of the aortic wall and to the retroperitoneal fibrosis that involves the organs that are close to the aorta. Open surgery is quite difficult for these reasons. And these imply a higher mortality rate
that is threefold the one for standard AAA. And the higher morbidity related to the surgical dissection in fibrosis with risk of iatrogenic injury of the involved organs. So that some authors suggest the supraceliac clamping. That of course have some other issues.
A recent paper suggests that a pre-op treatment with a cortical steroid therapy can be useful to reduce inflammatory signs and so minimize the operative risk for these patients. On the other hand, endovascular treatment has been proposed since 1997 with different outcomes.
Certainly mortality rate is lower when compared to open surgery, and even the one year mortality is lower. But we have a problem with periaortic fibrosis that does not decrease as well as with open surgery. And there is some progression, in some cases, with higher nephrosis that leads
to other types of complication. This is not a standard. You see in this paper that there is no problem with periaortic fibrosis after endovascular treatment. But in other papers, the situation is different. There is a worsening fibrosis and even the development
of fibrosis after standard EVAR in patients with no history of inflammatory AAA. And certainly the phenotype eg4 seems to be related to a worse outcome after EVAR. So, based on this situation, what we have done in the last year is to use a systemic steroid protocol
for our patients with inflammatory AAA that is the same that is used for arteritis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. And you see how impressive is the situation in this case. We had only four days of therapy, and we have a decrease in periaortic fibrosis of 28%.
We studied all our patients with PET/CT. We made a comparison with the patient with standard AAA, and we observed an increased level of captation that was really significant. This is our population. All of the patients had immunological screening,
and the evaluation of the inflammatory level. This is the operative situation. All the patients had a good result with no mortality at 30 days. Only one patient died three months later for other reasons. And what we observed is that in almost all cases,
the periaortic fibrosis reduced significantly with the, even with PET/CT. All the patients were asymptomatic. And all the patients with hydronephrosis have a release of the situation. You see that the diameter of the aorta decreased
of 9.76 millimeters, and there was a decrease in periaortic fibrosis of more or less one centimeters. So this is really significant, as you can see. And there was a reduce in the uptake for all the patients but one. We don't know exactly, he had a type two endoleak.
Don't know if this can be a correlation because it's a single patient. And another patient stopped corticosteroid therapy, and so there was a recurrence of this problem. The CRP reduced globally, but of course, it's not specific. So in some patients we had an increase for other reasons.
But our policy now is that we do EVAR, when feasible, associated to steroid therapy. That, in our practice, is effective. We use open surgery in patients unfit for standard EVAR, and probably, even for these patients, steroid therapy can be a choice.
- Well Mr. Chairman, dear friends, last year was here on the same stage for discussion of the results of the EVAR 1 trial and trying to tell you that the results of the EVAR 1 trial were no longer valid and this year I'll try to do the same for the EVAR 2 trial. The EVAR 2 trial was a randomized control trial
conducted in the UK in 33 centers with enrollment between 1999 and 2004. It was a randomized trial in which the patients were randomized between conservative treatment and open treatment and the common ground for the study was that these patients were unfit for open repair.
What is unfit for open repair in the EVAR 2 trial? Well the decision was made from three criteria. Cardiac reasons were the main reasons to consider patients as being unfit. Respiratory and renal reasons are the criteria that were used.
There have been several publications on this trial showing a design of the trial, the preliminary results, the final results in our recently last year, the very long results with this trial. And what are the results? Well as you can see here, it was a statistically
significant difference in aneurysm related mortality between the patients treated with EVAR and those treated conservatively but there was no difference in overall total mortality and this led us to the conclusion that indeed there was not really a place in those EVAR in those patients unfit for open repair.
However, we might look more closely to these results. The first thing in this trial is that almost 10% or more than 10% of the 197 patients that were randomized for EVAR actually did not receive the EVAR procedure because they died prior to the intervention and what was the reason for this?
Well the mean time between randomization and EVAR in this study was two months and in a quarter of the patients, it was even three months. The nine ruptures that occurred before the intervention had taken place. Actually it'd be more than half of
the aneurysm related mortality in this group. Another striking observation was that those patients that had no intervention, 1/3 of these actually were treated with EVAR in the followup period. And when we look at the results, whether it's observation-influenced results,
well you see when we perform a vertical analysis, the difference in aneurysm related mortality was even bigger and also there was a clear trend towards improved overall survival. Although this was not significant and therefore, the author still remains to the conclusion
that there was no place for EVAR in these patients. Looking again closer to the results and looking specifically at the patients with no intervention, already in 2009, there was more than half of these patients in this group actually were patients that already had EVAR.
And even worse, in 2015, of the 13 patients in this group that still survived, there was only one, yes only one, that did not have an EVAR procedure. So it's clear for me that only patients with EVAR actually survive.
Why are the results no longer valid either? Well this study was performed in 1999 up to 2004 and it's clear from further studies, just one example, that the results in the meantime have clearly improved from 1999 to 2004. While it wasn't the Stone Age for EVAR,
it was not more than Middle Ages. Plus mortality clearly improved with time and then when you look at the results of this trial, the 5.7% operated mortality in the EVAR group are actually at this moment no longer standard of care when you compare to these three other studies
which actually use the same criteria for considering patients that's unfit for open repair. Also we've got longer term survival. The mortality of 40% after, no, no, 60% after 40 as in 80% off of JVS can no longer be considered really as up to date results and probably the reason for that
is also the fact that medical treatment upstream in these optimal patients as only 40% statins. So are EVAR 2 results still valid? I think it's clear they are not. It's an old study with old devices. The mortality is not conform to actual standards.
Medical treatment was not optimal. The delay in treatment caused preventable deaths. More than 1/3 of the patients crossed over and the statistical analysis does not reflect the actual treatments of the patients. Does this mean that we should operate on all patients?
Well, maybe not. This is a very recent study published earlier this year in logical patients and you see that when some, certainly once several of the risk factors were considered being unfit patients were present, that results were indeed worse,
especially when there is renal insufficiency. The IR for the SVS guidelines correctly state that it is just to inform high risk patients over their risk status and their mortality score and then making an informed decision whether we should proceed with aneurysm repair or not.
It's my personal opinion though that clinical judgment is probably the most important factor in this decision making process. Thank you for your attention.
- Thanks, Stefan and Frank for having me back again this year. These are my disclosures as it pertains to the renal topics here. We all know that renal dysfunction severely impacts survival, whether we're doing open or endovascular aortic repair,
as you see by these publications over the past decade, patients with no dysfunction have a significant advantage in the long term, compared to those patients who suffer acute kidney injury, or go on to be on new hemodialysis. When you look at the literature,
traditionally, through open repair, we see that the post-operative rate of acute kidney injury ranges anywhere from 20 to almost 40 percent, and it doesn't seem to vary whether it's a suprarenal or infrarenal type
of clamp or repair. Chronic renal replacement therapy in this population ranges somewhere between 0 and 3 percent. That really forms a baseline when we want to compare this to the newer techniques such as chimney and fenestrated or branched EVAR.
Now, if you look at the results of the ZFEN versus Zenith AAA trials, and this is published by Gustavo, the acute kidney injury rate is approximately at 25%, acute kidney injury rate being defined as patients, excuse me, greater than 25% change in GFR,
but in one month acute kidney injury rate is 5% for FEVAR and about 9% for EVAR in this study. There's no difference in these rates at two years or five years between the Zenith AAA and the ZFEN devices. What about the progression of patients
with Stage 4 or Stage 5? At two years, it's about the same, 2% versus 3% for EVAR, and at five years, 7 and 8% respectively. Overall, progression to renal failure occurs in about 1.5% of patients in this cohort.
Well, how does that compare to chimney cases, if you look at the Pythagoras and PERICLES studies, there are a limited number of patients, you see in Pythagoras, 128 patients, 92% of them had either one or two chimneys, meaning generally addressing renal arteries in this case,
patency of those grafts was about 96% and there is no real discussion in that manuscript of the degree of acute kidney injury. And in PERICLES registry, however, they report a 17.5% incidence of acute kidney injury post-op,
and a 1.5% incidence of temporary or permanent dialysis. What about if you compare them? This is a publication in 2017, if you look at both of these studies, very similar, 17.8% for acute kidney injury in FEVAR, and about 19% for a chimney.
You have to realize, though, there are more complete repairs in the FEVAR group, and there are more symptomatic patients in the ChEVAR group, so these aren't completely comparable, but you get some idea that they're probably in the general range of one another.
So the real questions, I think, that come up, is, which arteries can you sacrifice? Are renal embolizations impacting patients' overall function? And what is the mid-term impact of branch and fenestrate on volume of your kidneys
and patients' eGFR. We've studie we looked at the incidence and clinical significance of renal infarcts, whether we actually embolized these pre-procedure,
or whether we accidentally covered or intentionally covered an accessory renal artery, what was the outcome of those patients? We see over time, the average renal volume loss, calculated by a CT scan and VAT volume, is about 2.5% if you embolize it
and if you just cover an accessory renal, about 6.4%. But overall, about 4%, didn't change significantly, overall the GFR changed over the lifespan of the first two years of the patient of 0.1, so it wasn't a significant clinical impact on the patient's overall renal function.
Now what about looking at it specifically of what happens when you do branch and fenestrate cases with respect to eGFR and volume of those? We presented this at this past year's SABS, and it is in submission. If you look at the changes of eGFR,
you notice that in the first six months, the patient declines, but not significantly, and then you see in the graph there, it tends to come back up by a year, year and a half. Very similar to what Roy Greenberg published in his initial studies,
but what we did in this study was actually compare it to the age match publications, and you see that eGFR over time was similar to what happens in age-related changes, but we also noticed that 16% of the patients, 9 of 56, had improvement of their eGFR
to greater than 60. Now whether this is just related to the inaccuracy of the eGFR and its variance, or whether we actually improved some renal stenosis, is difficult to tell in this small study. In conclusion, open, fenestrated,
and chimney EVAR procedures are associated with acute kidney injury in approximately 20% of patients. Causes of deterioration are likely multifactorial and may be different for each technique used. Renal infarcts from covering accessory renal arteries
and embolization occur in about a quarter of the patients, and is a small contributor to renal decline over time. Renal decline made after FEVAR is similar to associated with age. Thank you.
- Here we go. So, we know that late survival of patients with aortic aneurysms is not as good as matched controls and much of this is related to higher incidents of cardiovascular events. Other factors that impact survival are aneurysm size, as well as antiplatelet and statin therapy.
And we know that EVAR has no long-term survival advantage compared to open repair and, in fact, aneurysm related survival is worse after eight years for EVAR rather than open repair and, yet, 50% of our aneurysm patients are alive eight years after repair.
We've already seen about the differences in the mechanism of EVAR versus EVAS. With EVAR there's sac thrombosis, with or without endoleak, and we've previously shown that with sac expansion there's a significantly worse late survival compared to patients with no sac expansion.
This was a VSGNE study and then a larger VQI study showed that not only is sac expansion have worse survival but, even failure to regress so stable sacs also have worse survival compared to those that have sac regression. And this is independent of whether or not there's
an endoleak or reintervention. So, this prompted us to wonder if EVAS might be associated with a difference in All Cause Mortality compared to EVAR, and we know the act of sac management processed with EVAS involves obliteration of the flow loom and minimizing the chance for
type two endoleaks. This was spurred on by, as Jeff had mentioned previously, the excellent freedom from All Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality seen both in the US IDE but also in the global registry. And, on top of that, in a comparison with the report
from the Mayo Clinic, when looking at the EVAS patients from those two studies broken down by aneurysm diameter there seem to be, again, a difference in a three year survival of the EVAS patients compared to traditional EVAR. Why might this be? Well, several reports have come out demonstrating a
difference in post implant syndrome, various inflammatory markers, major adverse events, cardiac adverse events and endoleaks when comparing EVAS with EVAR. And, CRP levels are elevated in the entire
early post operative period with EVAR relative to EVAS. So, we wanted to compare All Cause Mortality with EVAS to EVAR so we used the 333 patients from the US IDE trial, from 2014 to 2016, and a comparison group we used all the EVAR patients in the US VQI
from the same time period and then applied the same exclusion criteria from the IDE being patients on dialysis or with elevated creatinine or rupture were excluded and then we used propensity weighting to account for differences is baseline characteristics and we did
weighting based on aneurysm characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors and implied inverse probability weighting to compare the risk adjusted long-term survival. Our primary outcome was overall survival and this propensity weighted cohort, and as a secondary analysis
we compared survival when stratified by aneurysm diameter, a small, less than 5.5 or greater than or equal to 5.5. And, in the overall cohort what we found was EVAS survival at three years of 93% compared to 88% for EVAR, a 41% lower hazard for mortality that was statistically significant.
When we looked at the patients with smaller aneurysms, we found no benefit, no difference in survival between the EVAS and EVAR. But in the patients with the larger aneurysms greater than, or equal to, 5.5 we had 92% and 86% three year survival, so double the mortality rate
in the standard EVAR patients. So, in conclusion, EVAS seems to be associated with the higher long-term survival compared to EVAR, and this association was strongest in those with largest aneurysms. We think the biology of the AAA after EVAS plays a role,
and we think that this supports the continued evaluation and iteration of this therapy. Thank you.
- Bill outlined why some of these trials fail. And there's so many pathways that are involved in the pathophysiology of venous leg ulcers. And I'm going to just talk about the proteins and the degradomes involved. And certainly you can talk about free radicals, you can talk about map kinases,
you can talk about TGF beta pathways, there's a lot. First some definitions. Proteomics, large scale study of proteins particularly their structure and function. The proteome is the entire set of proteins produced
or modified by an organism. In humans, just to give you an example, there's 27,000 proteins, that does not even include the ones that are actually post-translationally modified by glycosylation and phosphorylation and other mechanisms. The degradome, degradomics, aims to identify proteases
and protease substrates, the repertoires or degradomes of an organism wide-scale, identifying new roles for proteases in vivo. The study of degradome is directly related to measurement of enzymatic activities and will facilitate the identification of new
pharmaceutical targets to treat disease. So we actually did a review of analysis back in 2016, just to see what has been found in the venous leg ulcer, whether it was biopsied or whether it was wound fluid. And these are all the different types of
cytokines and proteins. There's ferritin, there's transferrin, there's hyaluronic acid, lactate, lactotransferrin, monoperoxidase, you go on and on and on. And of course, as I've mentioned, there's a number of cytokines and growth factors
that have been identified. And these are, whether they're cause and effect we don't know. But certainly we know they're present, they definitely have an influence, they've been measured,
and they've been associated with healing and non healing wounds. To go on, you can actually see some of these other proteins and proteases both serine proteases and metalloproteinase, and some of these things we don't even know what their function is, or what they're
doing in the venous leg ulcers, and that's really important. And again, here's further showing cathepsins and caspases and kallikrein, and different TIMPs. So all of these things have actually be found in venous leg ulcer wound, whether fluid or biopsy. This actually, probably a seminal article
that looked at, for the first time, the proteomics in patients with both healing and non healing venous leg ulcers. This was collected by wound fluid, it was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy.
And what they identified was 149 proteins that had differential detection. In the healing there was 23 that were identified, in non healing 26. And actually they then looked at three proteins and analyzed a series of patients,
and these are the number of patients that they've analyzed, to evaluate. And this is what they found, a lactotransferrin S100A9 and the annexins have different expression whether you're healing or non healing. And that's important because these proteins
have some significance, and this is what their significance. Lactotransferrin is important in iron scavenging. And we know that free iron, if it's in the wounds, it's actually very toxic leading to different types of peroxides that are developed, and also cellular pathways that can be disrupted.
So annexins are also important in inflammatory response, and they play a significant role not in just wound healing, but also in the detriments of venous leg ulcers. And S100A9 is actually a calcium binding protein that has significance in wound healing also. So in conclusion it's actually very complex,
the proteomics and degradomics. But they provide an opportunity to study novel proteins, function, and activity in venous leg ulcer. They do provide some proof of concept and possible mechanisms of venous leg ulcer pathology. They identify possible biomarkers, both for
identification of wounds that go on to heal versus the ones that don't go on to heal, as well as treatment and prognosis. And obviously possible targets for therapy. Thank you very much.
- Good afternoon to everybody. Thank you very much, Linio and Frank, for the invitation to the great session. First, the main problem is to define who is a no-option CLI patient? So I want to use, this is a young male, with a long history of diabetes, on hemodialysis.
This is the baseline angio. As you can see, the big vessel are absolutely open. We have an open spot of femoral artery, popliteal artery, and then also below the knee vessel are quite open, and we can see that the blood is going very well to the distalis, but in the foot,
we have a disease of all the foot vessel, which is a calcific disease. You can see here, this is the plain x-ray. I think that the plain x-ray of the foot is one of the most important information that we can get on the patients.
For every patient, I want to have this plain x-ray. You can see the medial artery calcification spreading everywhere, dorsalis pedis artery is occluded. We have a small, thin, tortuous, tarsal artery giving some blood to the forefoot. Medial plantar artery is occluded.
The lateral plantar artery is occluded. We have no any clear identification of the metatarsal vessels. This is the forefoot of this patient, and the majority of this patient, with a long history of diabetes and on hemodialysis,
have this medial artery calcification spreading to the tiptoe, and the first toe is totally avascular. This is the reason why this patient developed critical limb ischemia. So who is a no-option CLI patient?
I think that today, a no-option CLI patient is a patient without a target foot vessels. Today, SAD is the most common cause of no-option CLI patient because the SAD is correlated to the age, to diabetes, and end-stage renal disease. We have an epidemic of all of these three vascular factors
in our societies. In the majority of the cases, SAD is actually associated with medial artery calcification, in at least 25% of CLI patients, but today, I think that we are close to 40% present some degree of SAD-MAC.
So in this patient, how to create and master the hybrid foot vein arterialization circuit. This is the patient. My friend, Andrea Casini, vascular surgeon, has done a bypass with the proximal anastomosis of the great saphena vein on the distal P3 segment
of popliteal artery, and here we have this (mumbles) to give him blood to the medial marginal vein. Now, these are very good images, but we must learn how to read these images first. This is an arterialization on the superficial dorsal system of the foot,
so we have an inflow represented from, by the great saphena vein, and an outflow represented fundamentally by the medial marginal vein. We have other collaterals in the superficial system. For example, this is an ancillary superficial vein, and we see a faint shadow of the small saphena vein.
Then we have the deep dorsal system. We have a connection here, a perforant vessel, because it perforates the fascia, and goes from the superficial vein system to the deep dorsalis vein system. Here we have the two anterior tibial veins,
and the dorsalis pedis veins. Then we have the plantar system, the deep plantar system. We have these two plantar veins, the medial plantar vein, these are the two lateral plantar veins, and the deep plantar arch, and the two posterior tibial veins.
Now we have the last system, vein system of the foot represented by the superficial plantar systems, the Lejar's sole, and you can see here, this network, a network without valves, very thin veins, in all of the superficial plantar sole. We have a lot of connection
between these four systems of the foot. This is, for example, the perforator that I have dilated to give blood not only on the superficial dorsal system, but also to the deep dorsal system. We have many collaterals. I have embolized, for example, the anterior,
proximal anterior tibial veins, in order to avoid a precautious still of blood at the ankle level. I have embolized these collaterals that are perforator coming from the superficial dorsal system to the deep plantar system,
and stilling blood precautiously, and here we have the forefoot cross, which is the main cross between the three system, the superficial dorsal, the deep dorsal, and the deep plantar. Now, we can see that the arterialization was able to fill all the forefoot vein system,
and this is very important. When we get the direct blood flow through this collateral to the Lejar's sole, we know that the arterialization can really function. So I asked to my foot surgeon to do a non-geography guided surgery, wait for swelling,
wait for arterialized network expansion, respect the arterialized circuit, respect the forefoot cross, because we think that after foot vein arterialization, the foot is still ischemic, the arterialized circulation has not the same function of the standard circulation.
We must use a tension-free surgery to avoid focal ischemia. This is the tension-free surgery. I know that a transmetatarsal amputation could have been maybe more structurally stable, but I prefer to use this minimal surgery, and the patient has a complete healing
in two months, in two months. Now, the main problem of foot vein arterialization is to understand why this arterialization functions. Now, I propose you two hypotheses. The first is the mechanical hypothesis. Arterial and hydrostatic pressure force vein valves
leading to progressive valve incompetence, distal vein recruitment, and finally, direct issue nutrition by reverse blood flow. In 1906, Alexis Carrel made some experiments on dog, connecting with an anastomosis, the common femoral artery with the common femoral vein,
and he observed that there was the need of three hours at least to force by blood pressure the valves of the vein. Final, he said that practically complete reversal of the circulation is established about three hours after the operation. I want to prepare you this patient.
Observe, this is the acute phase immediately after treatment of foot vein arterialization with some leaking of blood on this vein that I have dilated. Eight days later, three months later, observe this geometry. Are impressive in my opinion.
Can we think that this geometry of vein, pure veins, can feed tissues like a normal standard geometry of artery? When I see these images, I answer, yes, I believe it. I believe it because we know that the venular plexus have a very thin vessel wall like capillaries, so it's a way, when we see these images,
we can really think about a complete reversal blood flow or something that is able to get the tissues and to feed the tissues. The second hypothesis is a biological hypothesis. Vein wall shear stress promotes a global remodeling and/or neoangiogenesis of the vascular system of the foot,
creating a new distribution system, and it was in hypothesis proposed by Languar. This is a LimFlow procedure on a patient like the first one, completely calcified, and this is the evolution, baseline, acute result, 45 days, 90 days after transmetatarsal amputation.
Look at this, 90 days, three months after the LimFlow procedure, the percutaneous deep vein arterialization, and about two months after the transmetatarsal amputation. This is really impressive. Look at these images.
What type of geometry, this one. Look at the baseline angio, and now we have all this vessel connecting with the veins. I am injecting blood contrast dye, so here in the distal stent of the LimFlow procedure, so we have no any blood flow coming
from the previous diseased arteries. This is the patient some months later. This is another patient baseline. An arterialization and after the occlusion of this arterialization, you can see this new neoangiogenesis.
Our results in 36 patients. We're able to get a 69% of limb salvage at 10 months, and I think that in highly selected no-option CLI patient, foot vein arterialization can be the only solution to avoid major amputation. Thank you very much for your attention.
- [Man] Bert, what some magnificent imaging and congratulations. When, just so that I'm clear, I mean, I've done, been lucky enough to have done a couple of LimFlow cases, and we are performing valve, using a valve at the time to perform valvotomies.
Are you suggesting that the pressure alone is enough to do something for the valves of the foot or how extensive do you think valvotomy needs to be in these cases? - [Man] This is our major limit because our limb salvage was correlated to the patency of the bypass,
and our patency was very poor, and it was very poor because we have not the reverse antegrade valvulotome, which is a part of the LimFlow kit. It's not sold alone, so we used some artisanal ways, like high pressure inflation of an oversized balloon. This is very effective but you have a restenosis rate,
very high reocclusion, thrombosis, and every failure, precautious failure of the graft of the bypass was correlated to a major amputation. - [Man] Yeah, okay. Any other questions or comments? - [Man] Is there any difference in your opinion
between a (mumbles) a total percutaneous? - [Man] I think that a total percutaneous procedure is a procedure with a target, which is the posterior system, essentially, because very few cases were done on the anterior system and the anterior deep system, in my opinion, is not a good target for the arterialization
because it is the poorest system, base system of the foot. The hybrid procedure can be done on both, the superficial dorsal system and the deep system. Obviously, you must choose according to the imaging of the baseline imaging or the vein system. Every patient is very different,
so you need to choose the proper target, vein target, into the foot. - [Man] Good. - [Man] Yeah, Roberto, this is very exciting stuff, and Rico and Asher and I tried to do this with primitive valvular destruction back in the 90s.
We had some incredible successes, but we also had some very bad failures. Patients got big, very much edema, one got into heart failure, one actually died, we felt, because of the AV fistula, and so we stopped, but can you talk about the mode of failure.
The successes are brilliant, and I think you definitely have something. We had some good cases but we had, our failures were all with the patent graft, and did you, you said I thought that you only failed when the graft closed.
- [Man] I read all your paper regarding this before starting, so I know that it's not easy. First of all, the key problem either the selection of patient. One of the key factor is heart function. We selected only patient with good heart function,
and second, the procedure is not a single procedure, standalone procedure. We had to follow the patient for months. Healing needs months, maybe repeat intervention, so you need a patient with an acceptable life expectancy and acceptable quality of life expectancy,
and acceptable working capacity, a salvageable foot, so a patient that can really cope with you in this long process of healing. The selection is a key factor. - [Man] Second question, why didn't you use the LimFlow exclusively?
- [Man] Because the LimFlow procedure is very costly, obviously, and in Italy, it is not reimbursed absolutely. This is the main reason.
- Thank you very much for the opportunity to speak. I will admit that I don't think we've got it all figured out, yet. But we'll go ahead anyway. So, persistent type two endoleaks do occur with some regularity and only about a third of them will resolve spontaneously, but fortunately
rupture is rare. A persistent endoleak with a sac expansion is our most common indication for treatment. We've got multiple treatment modalities, typically with a high initial, technical success, but the overall clinical success is not quite as good.
And so as we've learned the natural history is poorly understood, and there's no real strong evidence to guide our treatments. We tend to use CT image fusion to help us perform transarterial lumbar embolization as well as this is a transarterial from a hypogastric to coil
both lumbars and an IMA as well as the sac. We'll also use a direct sac puncture occasionally from a translumbar approach with the fusion guidance and also use that to guide us in terms of placing our embolic agents and then we'll also perform the transcaval embolization more recently.
This has become preferred over the translumbar approach and we can use that to then guide treatment and we use coils and glue combined typically now. We've performed over 100 procedures in 56 patients averaging two per patient. The average time from the endoleak to the procedure was
37 months and our follow-up is 27 months, about half had their EVAR performed at our institution and then the other half outside and about one in four of those had already had some sort of type two endoleak treatment. At our initial treatment, it's typically a trans, or it's been most commonly, a transarterial lumbar embolization
followed by IMA, followed by transcaval, and then direct sac puncture. Freedom from re-intervention is not perfect, so by one year it's about 50% we'll have a re-intervention for ongoing sac growth. For our secondary procedures, open repair has actually
become more common, followed by transcaval embolization then transarterial lumbar, IMA, direct sac puncture, and then also relining proximal extension with modified graft or anchors or cuffs. We have 10 patients that underwent open repair with a one year freedom from open repair of 94%.
Early on, we performed graft explantation for persistent growth with the type two endoleaks, then we switched to sacotomy initially without a proximal reinforcement. One of these was a patient who did rupture from an isolated IMA type two endoleak. We ligated the IMA, opened the sac, found no other bleeding,
closed the sac, and he's been fine for five years. We've taken to reinforcing the proximal attachment prior to opening the sac. One patient already had a PMEG for a type one and then more recently, we've been placing endoanchors for the proximal attachment prior to opening the sac.
Our clinical success from a single intervention is only 33% with multiple interventions it goes up to 67% and if you include the open repairs with sacotomy it goes up to 88%. This is for sac stabilization or decrease. So, I do still believe that large type two endoleaks
with sac expansion should be treated for lumbars. We will still typically go transarterial for the IMA. We'll go from the SMA. If we can't do those, or we failed, then we'll go transcaval as our next approach followed by translumbar. We like to treat both the nidus and the source feeding
vessel and if we fail with all of those, we proceed to sacotomy then will now place the proximal endoanchors for fixation. What we have been seeing, though, more commonly is this where there's poor attachment at the proximal end or distal end and a patient who we've performed
multiple procedures for type two endoleak and there's ongoing sac growth and even though there's no definitive type one leak, clearly if there were we would just go ahead and treat that, but in those patients who don't have a defined type one or three, but they have poor apposition, then we'll consider relining them,
extending them, anchoring, etc. And then, only then, if they still have problems would we consider treating the small type two endoleak. I'm looking forward to the discussion 'cause I think we've got it all figured out. Thanks.
- Good morning, I want to thank Professor Vitta for the privilege of presenting on behalf of my chief, Professor Francesco Speziale, the result from the EXTREME Trial on the use of the Ovation stent graft. We know that available guidelines recommend to perform EVAR in patient presenting at least a suitable
aortic neck length of >10mm, but in our experience death can be a debatable indication because it may be too restrictive, because we believe that some challenging necks could be effectively managed by EVAR. This is why when we published our experience 2014,
on the use of, on EVAR, on the use of different commercially available device on-label and off-label indication, we found no significant difference in immediate results between patient treated in and out IFU, and those satisfactory outcomes were maintained
during two years of follow-up. So, we pose ourself this question, if conventional endografts guarantee satisfactory results, could new devices further expand EVAR indication? And we reported our experience, single-center experience, that suggests that EVAR by Ovation stent-graph can be
performed with satisfactory immediate and mid-term outcomes in patient presenting severe challenging anatomies. So, moving from those promising experiences, we started a new multi-center registry, aiming to demonstrate the feasibility of EVAR by Ovation implantation in challenging anatomies.
So, the EXTREME trial was born, the expanding indication for treatment with standard EVAR in patient with challenging anatomies. And this is, as I said, a multi-center prospective evaluation experience. The objective of the registry was to report the 30-day and
12 month technical and clinical success with EVAR, using the Ovation Stend-Graft in patient out of IFU for treatment by common endograft. This is a prospective, consecutively-enrolling, non-randomized, multi-center post market registry, and we plan to enroll at least 60 patients.
We evaluated as clinical endpoints, the freedom from aneurysm-related mortality, aneurysm enlargement and aneurysm rupture. And the technical endpoint evaluate were the access-related vascular complications, technical success, and freedom from Type I and III endoleaks, migration,
conversion to open repair, and re-interventions. Between March 17 and March 18, better than expected, we enrolled 122 patients across 16 center in Italy and Spain. Demographics of our patient were the common demographic for aneurysm patients.
And I want to report some anatomical features in this group. Please note, the infrarenal diameter mean was 21, and the mean diameter at 13mm was 24, with a mean aortic neck length of 7.75mm. And all grafts were released accorded to Ovation IFU. 74 patients out of 122
presented an iliac access vessel of <7mm in diameter. The technical success reported was 98% with two type I endoleak at the end of the procedure, and 15 Type II endoleaks. The Type I endoleak were treated in the same procedure
by colis embolization, successfully, and at one month, we are no new Type Ia endoleaks, nine persistent Type II endoleaks, and two limb occlusion, requiring no correction. I want to thank my chief for the opportunity of presenting and, of course, all collaborators of this registry,
and I want to thank you for your attention, and invite you, on behalf of my chief, to join us in Rome next May. Thank you.
- Thanks Stephan, yes I just want to give you five tips and tricks that I've learnt with my experience to this technique, and also then I'll present some results from the Ascend International Trials. I have an obvious disclosure that is important to show.
So, I do think that custom-made devices or phenostate graphs are the gold standard in this area of the difficult neck to aneurysm, but there are constraints with it, both financially and atomically, and of course its not the perfect solution
so we still need to strive to find better solutions for patients and indeed an off the shelf solution is very useful especially in emergency situations. I think we're all quite surprised by the outcomes from parallel grafts.
I certainly, when I saw this originally thought this was never going to work but actually, the results from standard evar with chimneys are really quite good. There is however always the potential for gutter endoleaks when aligning
parallel grafts with conventional EVAR stents which are not really designed for this purpose. So, endovascular sealing with parallel grafts offers a solution to this with the prevention potentially of gutter endoleaks because the polymus bag will seal alongside
the parallel grafts. And in practice this works quite well so you can position two, three or even four parallel grafts alongside the nellix sealing device to give yourself a really good seal and an example is shown here on the CT.
So tips for getting good outcomes from this, well the first is an obvious one, but its to plan very carefully, so do think you need to be very cautious in your planning of these with regard to multiple levels of the technique
including access, the type, length, and the nature of the parallel grafts you're going to use. I'll talk a bit more about the neck lengths but aneurysm lengths as well because there are some restraints with the
nellix device in this regard. You need to take very carefully about seal both proximally and distally and I do think you need to do this in a hybrid theater with experienced operators. I mentioned neck lengths and my Tip two is
you have to not compromise on neck quality and neck length. So you need straight healthy aorta of at least 15mm, of less than 30 diameter and a low thrombus burden. If you do compromise you'll see situations as the one on the photograph shows
where you get migration stents so you must not compromise on the quality and length of your aortic neck and if that means doing more chimneys, do it that's not a major problem but if you compromise on neck,
you will have problems. I mentioned the parallel grafts, again this is part of the planning but we use balloon expandable stents of a reasonable length to ensure that you get at least a centimeter into each of the branches
and you have to be careful to position these above the polymer bags so that they don't become constrained by the polymer bags from the nellix device. You have to be very careful when positioning these so the tip four is watch the parallax in
two different angles to be sure, as in the case here, that you line up all your stents appropriately and that you don't get crushing of any of the individual stents. So parallax is vital. And th
ltiple levels of redundancy in the nellix system which you can use to your advantage to ensure you get a good seal. So here's an example where the bags you can see are not entirely filled using the primary fill.
And it is quite difficult because often you get polymer pressures that are slightly erroneous in the endo bags. So use the redundancy including what's called the secondary fill of these bags so you can adequately fill the bags
right up into the aortic neck and ensure a very good proximal seal. So what are the results, well this is the post-market registry of Ch-EVAS this is an open-label study with no screening and I'll just show you a few slides of the data
on 154 de-novo procedures, which are a combination of single, double triple, and even quadruple chimneys. And if we look firstly at outcomes at 30 days the outcomes are good, that you'd expect in these difficult anatomies,
so 2.6% mortality and stroke, and just two cases of temporary renal failure. And if we look out 12 months, the freedom from aneurysm related and all cause mortality is favorable and comparable with any of the other endovascular techniques
in these difficult anatomies, in the upper 90 percents. And endoleak rates, you pretty much eradicate type two and type three endoleaks, but remember this is only 12 months, and very low levels of type one endoleak
and its really the type one endoleaks that are difficult to fix and if you ensure that proximal neck is adequate this shouldn't occur. And finally just secondary interventions, again this is out 12 months. Secondary Interventions are low and again
I think with the tips that I've shown you, you can reduce this to an absolute minimum. So this does offer an off the shelf alternative I don't think in any way this is to match the current gold standard which to me is the custom-made devices, but it's a very useful
adjunct to the techniques we have, and again provides that off the shelf solution which in emergencies and urgent cases is essential. Don't compromise on your neck, the outcomes I think, in this group are promising, but of course, the long term durability is
absolutely essential so it's important we follow these patients out to at least 5 years. Thank you.
- I want to talk on managing branch complications. This is my disclosure. We overlook in the Berlin-Brandenburg Helios Vascular Center about 466 patients treated with branched, TVAR and fenestrated EVAR devices. All patients received Zenith stent-grafts, custom made devices, T-Branch, or standard fenestrations
in all cases. The target arteries that we are talking about were renal, SMA, celiac access and internal iliac arteries. We used exclusively bridging stent-grafts that were balloon expandable stent-grafts. This is the differentiation of the patients
so we had EVAR fenestrated grafts in 190, branched TVAR in 138 patients, 93 of them were off the shelf devices and T-branch. EVAR with iliac side branches in 138 patients and all together we treated target arteries of 1270. You see the hospital mortality of these procedures
you can see a clear difference between the EVAR fenestrated graft and the branched T version are much more complex procedure and although overall mortality was 4.9% over these 13 years. What happened in these patients we experienced
in 44 patients, 44 complications in the target arteries so unfortunately one target artery problem per patient in these complicated cases. This means rate of 3.5% problems in the target arteries overall. Involved were renal arteries in 32 cases,
SMA in 10 cases and the celiac artery in two cases. What did we do in these cases? Managed the complications once thrombolysis was different devices for example were Rotorex stenting of the dissected vessels, coiling if unavoidable or occlusion of the side branch if no access was possible.
Show you some examples. This is a very serious complication where we were unable to enter the SMA resulting in occlusion of you see on the right slide that this was solved by laparotomy and retrograde access to the SMA.
This is a stenting of a dissected renal artery which could be managed quite nicely with an extension of the stent. Here we have again a prolonged intraprocedural SMA occlusion. We finally managed to enter the vessel
but it was very, very long and prolonged time. This is an inaccessible celiac artery where we have finally had to skip, not iliac sorry, celiac artery where we had to skip the implantation finally and occlude the branch with Amplatzer plug.
All together if you look at these complications in 34 cases we were successful in clinical point of view. In 9 patients complication was little and majority of these were complications involving the SMA. Eight of nine patients had with severe complication in the SMA and died
and so the SMA complications contribute, compared to the mortality, 40% to the procedural mortality in these branched cases. So in conclusion, injury to target artery in endovascular repair with branched and fenestrated stent-grafts are rare
but may be a serious complication especially damage to the SMA has a high mortality and thus further improvement of endovascular skills, instruments for example moveable sheaths which we had not available in the beginning and troubleshooting devices are mandatory
to avoid these complications. Thank you very much for your attention.
- I'd like to thank Dr. Veith for allowing me to come back to present here. I have no disclosures. A recent large study, retrospective study from Canada looked at the bleeding complications associated with oral anticoagulants, and they identified that there were
significant differences in the patterns of bleeding when compared to the DOACs with Warfarin. Patients receiving Warfarin had a slightly higher rate in intercranial hemorrhage and hematuria, whereas patients receiving DOACs had a significantly higher rate
of gastrointestinal bleeding. In their review of the treatment patterns for these bleeding complications, the patients receiving Warfarin had a significantly higher rate of a Vitamin K administration as would be assumed
and prothrombin complex concentrate administration significantly higher than in the DOAC group. The DOAC group did because they had a higher rate of GI bleeding. Probably had higher rate of packed red blood cells transfusion as well.
Their treatment patterns were in general agreement with generally accepted practice guidelines for Vitamin K antagonist-associated bleeding and that includes for non-major bleeding Vitamin K administration, transfusion of blood components as necessary
for red cells and platelets as necessary but for major bleeding a slightly higher rate of Vitamin K administration, and then the Kcentra, or the 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates which are administered on a dosing
which depends on the patient's initial presenting INR. The cost of a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate's average wholesale price is about $1.20 to $1.60 per unit which equates to about $2200 to over $5000 per treatment for patients receiving Kcentra. This is in contrast to patients receiving FFP
with a cost of about $1600 per patient. We, in our institution, tend to underutilize the 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates despite their advantages. The advantages of the 4-factor PCCs for reversing Vitamin K antagonist-associated bleeding
include much more effective hemostasis, much more rapid INR correction, 62% versus 9% for plasma, and then median total volume which was significantly lower with the 4-factor PCCs compared to a much higher volume needed to resuscitate and to reverse the INR, fairly ineffectively, in the patients receiving plasma.
Now moving a little bit on to the direct thrombin inhibitors and the factor Xa inhibitors. They are ubiquitous in our practices in vascular surgery and cardiology. That's just going to increase even more with the recent FDA approved indication
for major cardiovascular event reduction in the patients with PAD. Fortunately, the patients receiving DOACs have a somewhat lower rate of bleeding complications compared to the Vitamin K antagonists, although that's not zero.
I'll go a little bit into the specific reversal agents for the DOACs. The first of these being Idarucizumab which is an antibody fragment directed against Dabigatran. It has a dosing, which is fairly simply, of five grams of intravenous bolus
with an additional five gram intravenous bolus which can be administered if there's ongoing bleeding. It's a fairly short half-life, 47 minutes. The cost of this medication is fairly similar. $3600 to $3800 dollars per dose for these patients. The benefit of this is that it actually
irreversibly binds to the Dabigatran and increases the illumination of that medication. I will just very briefly go into the clinical studies that led to the approval of Andexanet. Patients, basically 67 patients, who had major bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage,
and there was, in brief, just a very significant robust reduction in the factor Anti-Xa activity approved in May of 2018. It is used to treat Rivaroxiban and Apixaban. It has a fairly complex dosing protocol which is dependent on the type of
DOAC which is being administered. The last dose and the last timing for the last dose. The cost of this medication is way out of the ball park compared to the other medications. $3300 per 100 milligram vial equating to a low dose infusion of $26000
and a high dose infusion of $59000. CMS does allow for additional payment of $14 to $15000 per patient, but that still does not counteract that significant cost. There is also the problem with regard to the rebound activity which occurs at
four to six hours later. So I'll briefly go into the CHEST guidelines which just came out in August of this year saying that for minor bleeding, NOAC, and Vitamin K bleeding you just reduce the dose or decrease it. For moderate bleeding, transfusion as necessary
and consider charcoal for Dabigatran, and for severe, life-threatening bleeding consider the specific anticoagulant reversal agents. However, I predict that our hospitals over the next year are going to be grappling with who will be doing the approval for these medications
and how many will be administered at any one time point. Thank you.
- Speaking about F/EVAR and Ch/EVAR, and try to prove that the evidence of Ch/EVAR is solid, especially in some circumstances also better than the evidence about F/EVAR. Well, let's try to define this title. Durability of Ch/EVAR is solid if the procedure is done right.
And I think this is very, very crucial. We heard and we know the PERICLES Registry tried to evaluate this technique, collecting the worldwide experience from 13 US and European university centers, and published in annals of surgery.
And also, the PROTAGORAS study focused exactly on the performance of the Endurant device in order to avoid this heterogeneity which we had in the study (mumbling) published literature up to now. Focusing exactly on the Endurant device
in combination with balloon expandable covered stent. And based on these two registries and studies, we identified four key points, four key factors, which we'd like to give you as take home message in context to have the Ch/EVAR technique as solid procedure. So, we learned that the technique performs very well
if we use the technique for single or maximum double chimney grafts. We highlighted how important it is for this technique to use suitable combinations between aortic stent-graft and chimney devices. And we learned also, how important is the oversizing.
We have to have enough fabric material to wrap up the chimney grafts of 30% of the aortic stent-grafts. And in this context, we highlighted also the importance of creating a new sealing zone of 20 millimeter in order to have durable results.
Which is also very important is to know when we should probably avoid to perform the technique, and I would like also to highlight these points. So, we learned in case of excessive thrombus formation in the thoracic, especially also LSA, we have to be very, very careful with this technique,
because of course, we have the risk of cerebral vascular events. We learned also that performance of this technique in a neck diameter of more than 30 millimeter is associated with high risk of Type 1A endoleaks, which will be persistent, and which probably
lead to failure of the treatment. Which also learned is to evaluate very carefully the morphology of the renal arteries, especially focus of the calcification of the stenosis, and also of the diameter. And last but not least, it's very important to
have access to the suitable materials for renal cannulations, and also experience. So, if we consider these key points of doing and not doing chimneys, I think we have a very good base to have durable and good results over the time. And we have seen that.
You saw it very nicely (mumbling) the changes of the diameter pre and postoperative, but you forgotten to highlight that there was highly significant in the PERICLES and in the PROTAGORAS Registry. Also, what we have seen is that
more than 90% of the patients had stable or shrinkage of the sac after a CT follow up of two years. And here's a very nice overview of the Kaplan-Meier curves, highlighting that the technique performs very well in this specific combination of the Endurant devices,
abdominal device, and abdominal chimney grafts like the Advanta. Having a very nice chimney graft patency of almost 96%, and a freedom from chimney graft later interventions of 93%. Very important is also if we create these very good sealing zone of two centimeters.
We have a very, very low incidence of new Type 1A endoleaks needed reintervention. And here is an example of a case which had a very short sealing after the previous treatment with chimney for the left renal artery, and over the time was necessary to extend the sealing zone,
creating these durable solution and transformating from single to triple chimney, as we can see here. So, this is very important to know and to highlight. In context of the better or not better for F/EVAR, we can see now the results, and we've compared with meta analysis of F/EVAR.
We see that the results are similar. Keeping in mind also that in F/EVAR, we involve the SMA either as scallop or as bridging device, and we don't have evidence about the SMA outcomes and the SMA patency because most of the patient probably who will die, and will not perform autopsy
for each patient if it has an SMA occlusion or not, so I believe it is underestimated the really incidence of survival after F/EVAR. And also, regarding the patency, we have also in this context, similar results after chimney compared to the patency of the bridging device after F/EVAR.
So, ladies and gentlemen, I believe we've considered these key points. We can achieve very good results performing Ch/EVAR, having as a solid and valuable procedure for our patients. Thank you very much.
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