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Picture Superiority Effect | Presenting and Designing a Podium Presentation - Workshop
Road Maps, Engaging with the Audience, and Public Speaking | Presenting and Designing a Podium Presentation - Workshop
Road Maps, Engaging with the Audience, and Public Speaking | Presenting and Designing a Podium Presentation - Workshop
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Transcript

- [Presenter] Unless we get people who are willing to stand up and talk, we're gonna lose our own specific knowledge. Now, most nurses graduate out of nursing school and they've had to give a presentation in class and they probably don't remember what their actual presentation was about,

but they sure remember that they were scared and unhappy to do it, and, as such, I decided that I should teach a very simple, more or less foolproof method of how to design and present a podium presentation so that next year all four of you can be up here talking.

The first step is, because we always have to have objective slides, even though I absolutely hate having objective slides, I have three. I view, come on in, welcome! Are you in the right place?

- Yes. - Podium presentation, you're sure? Someone else came in and left so I just wanna make sure. No, you're not welcome, you already gave a presentation. You'd be up here teaching this. I like to think of my presentations as a three act play.

First I'm gonna write the script, then I'm going to create the look, and then I'm going to deliver the performance or the experience. With any good production we write the script first, then we create the look, and then we do the actual,

opening night arrives and we give a stellar presentation. Let's talk first about number one, writing the script. Long before anyone considers creating a performance, they write the script, and the script comes in three parts. For me, it's writing it analog, developing and maintaining a coherent focus of your presentation,

and it's using the power of three to add impact to your material. For those of you who've ever given a presentation, how many people start their talk with this? They open up PowerPoint and they start right there. A few people have been brave enough to say uh-huh

and other people are like, "I'm not answering that question "because obviously it's a trick question." Would it interest you a lot to know that it takes at least twice as long to create a presentation if you start at this step and that I can cut your presentation time in half if you don't start at this step?

Because I'm pretty excited about that. Today, I have handed you out a little template and that's what we're gonna use to design a presentation. Go ahead and write on it. When you get home, not the actual slide, so the pictures with not many words on them,

will be on the website, but actual more directions, more how to read this as opposed to just pictures, because they're not very helpful. For today's practice, we're gonna make a script, make your script, write on this, it's gonna be quick and easy,

because writing with a pen on paper, old school, expands the visual possibilities of what you're gonna talk about because it helps make sure you're focused and you know what you're talking about. Pick something easy, it can be something

you know a lot like starting an IV or making toast. It doesn't matter. You're not gonna have to share it with anything, it's just for you guys. I'm going to, for demonstration purposes, give how I created an anti-bullying talk I gave.

Not sure on the website, if it's now titled, but this is the (mumbles), the Brown simple, super simple way to create a presentation, and when he first labeled it he put the simple in the wrong place, and that's the (background noise drowns out speaker).

He moved it around, but anyway, you feel free to use this if you want when you go home and you can change it as you like. If you do a great job, you can credit me. If you do a poor job, don't credit me (laughs).

The number one thing you need to consider

before you start a presentation is - [Audience Member] Topic. - [Presenter] Okay, and how do you decide on your topic? - [Audience Member] Something of interest or something that you know about or you wanna know? - [Presenter] Kinda.

You got it actually in the second part there, and it's basically what need does your audience have that you as the speaker can provide. It's not what do I want to talk about. It's what do they need from me. That's called the what's in it for me,

which is what W-I-I-F-M stands for, what's in it for me. You ever go to a presentation and the guy starts with, or the girl, pardon me, "Okay, well, our company was developed in 1927 "and our first product was this, "and then we came out with this angiocatheter,

"and then we had this hook on it, "and we named it after this man, "and then, and then, and then." You're just sittin' there the whole time going, "Why do I care? Why do I care? "What am I sitting here for?"

That's because that guy hasn't figured out the what's in it for you. If he stood up there and said, "Our new catheter will cut your budget in half", some of you would go, "Whoa." And if they said, "And it's really easy to open and use,

and blah blah blah", the rest of you'd go, "Okay, I like that." Right? The what's in it for me. You don't care about all that first stuff. This is the part that you have to figure out what is the one thing, the one thing

you wanna tell your audience what they need from you and that's what you have to tell them as soon as possible because it keeps them engaged, and it is the reason you need to tell them during the presentation what you're talking about, why you're talking.

It's called, on your template, the top left, it's called call to action, and that is what you start with. This is your one thing you want the audience to know. When they walk outta your talk, and they say, "I went to this talk," they wanna be able to tell people word-for-word what the one thing was.

I hit the actual wrong forward button, so there it is, actually, the call to action. In my anti-bullying talk, I started with my call to action of it is time to stand up, and if not for yourself, pledge to do it. The time for resistance is now.

That was my call to action, the whole point to me giving the talk because that was what I thought people needed to know. In whatever little example you've taken, in the top left, in 10 words or less, write down what your call to action

for this little fake presentation you're creating is. Jot it down, few words. It's just so that when you go home and you look at this, you go, "What was I supposed to write in here again?" You got 30 seconds.

Maybe your call to action is

(background noise drowns out speaker) or make sure the eggs are cooked or I don't know. - [Audience Member] In 10 words or less. - [Presenter] They can be more than 10 words, but you only have 30 seconds, though, so I'm not sure how long you want to take.

It's your call to action. It's why you're doing this. (mumbling) Once you've decided on your call to action, the next step is your reasons. You're gonna list the general reasons

you're gonna use to support your call of action. These are not long, drawn out reasons. These are basically bulleted points, and three is a really good number, and I'll explain why shortly, but for now, trust me. Three is the number here, if you can think of three.

For my bullying example, it was bullying kills and has staggering costs, we know it exists, many of us are victims, and policies exist, this was a workplace talk, but are of little comfort because they always appear to empty promises. Those were my three main points

in my talk that I put up there. Go ahead, jot down three, if you can think of, if you can get at least one, that will help you for the rest of your little experience there.

The next part we would talk about is we're gonna start at the back and it's the conclusion.

If you've heard the once upon a time and they lived happily ever after part of a story, the end, the happily ever after, is actually where you would start writing the story. This is a current movie that's out. None of you will have seen it.

It's a small web series and it just went to movie, but this is actually the end, or part of the end, and you look at that and it doesn't tell you anything, because it's just a picture I randomly selected. Basically, you need to know where you're going to start your talk, and it's actually

the most important part of the talk. People remember what they hear first and the last the best. When they walk out of the room, what they heard as the last thing is what they're going to remember the longest and the best, so you need to make sure you have a powerful conclusion

to your talk, so they remember why you talked. You write your conclusion first and you base it off your call to action and the three general reasons you just wrote down to figure out what your conclusion is. My example, my conclusion actually only had two points

even though I had listed three reasons, and they were that I wanted people to go out and know that they could stand up for themselves, and how to do it, and they could stand up for others, and how to do it. That was the entire conclusion of my talk. I knew that I was gonna talk about bullying

and I had to get to the point where I told people how to stand up for themselves and how to stand up for others. My talk is now focused. I know where I need to go. Go ahead, if you can, if you can perform under pressure,

make up a conclusion. That's why you gotta pick somethin' easy at the beginning of this presentation because I'm gonna give you, you're creating a presentation in half an hour here. In reality, it's not quite this simple or quick,

or it's simple, but it's not quite this quick. You gotta think about it a little more. You got about a minute to think of a conclusion. Remember, the first time you start to work on a talk, you can do this in rough and just your stuff down because you can refine it.

You don't have to stick with this forever. Okay, now that we have our conclusion jotted down, what do you think the next piece is? Anybody? Anybody? Where we're ending up?

- [Audience Member] The start? - [Presenter] Exactly right.

If this was the introduction to my movie, those are the same two women, and I had started with this first, you would have no idea how you're gonna get from there to the end,

but you already know when you're writing this script where you're ending up. Now, you're left, "Okay, this is where I'm gonna start." Now, the fun begins. You're fillin' in all the middle, right? As I said, I said that people remember

the first and the last the best, but at the beginning, you have 30 to 60 seconds to hook your audience. If you don't capture their attention in that first 30 to 60 seconds, it's hard to get their attention back to you.

That is the most crucial part of your presentation is that first 30 to 60 seconds, and the very last call to action that you get. You write this with your conclusion so you can mirror and complement. We all know that, once upon a time,

lived happily ever after, it's a really nice bookend. It really talks about some time. It's started, it was a long time ago, they lived happily ever after. They fit together well. There are many hooks you can use.

You can ask a question, particularly if it's a controversial question. If I got up here at some presentation and I said, "I think med rad techs are absolutely, by far and away, the best people ever to sedate a patient for procedural sedation in every single case out there,"

I would have every single person in the room's attention. Right? That would be a good hook. Now, obviously I would have a reason for that, I'm not sure what it would be because I don't know the answer to that, I certainly didn't think so,

but it would catch your attention, and as long as I bookended it with the end, with why I thought that happened, maybe I would convince you. You can also tell a story. Once upon a time, this happened.

I was in a case, like Pierre, I was in a case and there was blood all over the place from hemoptysis from a complex airway and finish the story at the end. Sometimes people will start a story and tell you all these bad things that happened,

what they did about it, how it ended, and that keeps readers engaged, or readers, listeners engaged and following along in your story. It is a good idea to bookend, so if you open with a question, end with an answer. If you open with a story, end with a story.

You can have more than one story. It doesn't have to be the same story cut in half, but end with a related story. Your introduction is now based off those three points with your conclusion. Where are you starting?

My introduction was going to cover the fact that bullying is a significant problem. People die from it and it is a rampant problem in work. Mine was, workplace bullying was the whole point of the topic, was for students, my grad students. That was the two points I was going to highlight.

People say bullying is a problem. Well, it is because people die, and bullying is not just for high school because these were all people who were just in university and they didn't know yet maybe that bullying is a rampant problem in workplace.

They might have thought they were finished will all that and I wanted them to know they weren't. Once you've got your introduction figured out, you put your intro and your conclusion together to come up with a title. The interesting thing about titles is,

I hate the title for this presentation, "Designing and Presenting a Podium Presentation", it's like absolutely the worst possible title ever, but I used to make really interesting titles and they didn't translate well to the, reading 'em on a little sheet of what's coming up

and people didn't know if they should come. I used to do one on mock codes and it was called, "Making Bad Things Happen For Good Reasons", which is a perfect topic, perfect title, but people would look at that and go, "I'm not goin' to that.

"Why do I wanna make bad things happen?" You have to think about how it's reaching your audience, but you can always make it the part two, so I think mine was called "Multidisciplinary Team-Building Mock Emergencies", and then I put the

"Making Bad Things Happen For Good Reasons" because then you're happy, too. You got a better title in there. Go ahead, take a minute. Jot down your little two introduction points or three introduction points

and see if you can make a title. When you're all done, I'll see if anyone wants to share briefly what their title is and what the beginning and the end points would have been. In my case, I ended up with rock your converse, which are a type of shoe

because it was a popular hashtag for that age group at the time and it had to do with standing up in your own shoes because they were your shoes and not what someone else wanted you to wear, and then I added in the bottom part,

which was walking in your shoes when someone else is trying to step on them. It tied in together the fact that the bully is trying to step on them to hurt you more, disrupt your life. How did you walk in your own shoes?

It's a big struggle with the titles. It does take a while to really think of a good title. I really does. That's actually the hardest part. Once upon a time, I used to only write my title at the very, very end because I wasn't sure

what my title should be, so if you don't have one pop into your mind, that's fine.

Now, I'm going to talk about the power of three, and if you heard Sarah's talk today, she talked to you about patterns and recognition, and how the person with the mustache maybe freaked you out,

or you had a bad experience with the 6'4 guy with black hair and it made you think twice, so that part of your brain that kept you safe was speaking to you. Three is one of the most powerful numbers in evolution because it's the smallest number

you can have that makes a pattern, and our brains rely on patterns to keep us alive. This number is so strong that if I say one sentence, every single one of you will fill in the end of the sentence exactly the same. Are you ready?

Okay, we're all gonna move this patient, let's move the patient on, what's the count, right? In fact, do you even have to say, "Let's move them on three"? We're all together, we're holding the patient,

someone just starts counting sometimes, right? One, two, and we all know to move on three. Three is that number in our brain. We never count to two, we never count to four, we never say, "Is it three and then go? "Or is it go on three?"

We all know that one, right? We could count to two, there's no reason we couldn't, right? We all come in, okay, everybody ready? One, two, or ready, set, go. That's three, but we don't. We say three and that pattern recognition

is really important. It really reinforces things. In general, this is not a, you have to stick to it every time or die. If you can make three main points in your talk, that's a really good number.

That's why there's three big categories. In this talk, there was my reason, this is why I had you list three if you could, and they are, how I put them into the three main parts of my talk was bullying, in general, I was gonna give some definitions,

why does it flourish, and what do I do about it. That was how I was going to break my talk down. This talk is also divided into three. You guys remember that? It was writing the script, planning the look, delivering the experience.

There is a button on the back here. It really does get confusing when you hit it by accident. Just like everybody else this weekend. Look at your three reasons at the top, and just for one of them, or just translate them into A-B-C across the top,

so sort of your three main points, what would be the three spokes of your talk? Now, because I like three so much, you also put down three points if you can, again, you don't always have three points. You would put them down under each one.

These would be your three main supporting factors for each of your points. This was how I set mine up. I did have three under each, I don't always, I have given talks where I might have two in one section and four in another.

It depends on the nature of the material and how you divide it, but it is a good way to structure. I will explain as well in just a little bit another reason why. Now, each of these points, for example, costs in society, is going to be a main talking point in your script.

It is going to be one section you talk about and then you're gonna move on to the next one. You're going to flesh this out a bit a little bit later, but this is basically the entire bones of your talk. There it is. If you give your talk more than once,

you can actually give your entire talk from that one piece of paper, if you know your material well enough, if you've practiced, because it tells you the entire road map and where you wanna go. Questions on point one, the entire first part.

We have just now written our script.

Alright, then. Let's move on to creating the look. To create our look, we have a script and what we're gonna do is we're gonna create some storyboards.

Storyboards ensure we're dealing with a single theme or idea at a time, rather than a bunch of ideas jumbled together on a slide. Those storyboards I'm gonna show you how to create are how we create our PowerPoint, which is coming up much later from now.

Then, I'm gonna talk about how to stay visual. For those of you who don't know what a storyboard, 'cause you weren't a Star Wars freak when the first movies came out like I was, when they create a script for a movie, every little piece that is a scene in the movie,

or a picture of a scene, has an actual storyboard like this. They used to be lettered by hand, but probably now done electronically. This one happens to be from Jaws because there's not a lot on here. This was where Bruce the shark

came out of the water and bit the boat. This was it, this is what it looked like in the rough, and it became a scene in the movie, or a picture in the movie actually. This is a graphic representation of a point in the show. For us, we're gonna use our storyboards to decide

the content and the visual support in an individual slide. That's going to be our scene or our picture. There's only going to be one idea per storyboard, so sometimes the storyboards could become more than one slide, but you will never have more than one storyboard about a slide.

Here's a storyboard example. Basically, when I make storyboards, I take a sheet of paper like this, and depending on if I'm very early or if I'm a little bit later in the presentation, I either rip it up into four, scrap paper,

or I might make one per paper, but if they're smaller, they make you be more concise, so you can use index cards, you can use whatever you want, the idea being, this is how you create it. At the top, you write the point of the slide, not the title, the point of the slide.

What is this one slide about? Then, underneath, which is still also on that same little storyboard, you're gonna write the talking points. Take one of your one, twos, or threes, if you have one, and just for a second, you can jot it

on the back of your paper if you want, jot down what you wanna say about that. For mine, it was rock your converse. Now, I'm showing it to you here because I don't have a slide where I've written it on by hand, but these become your slides when you sit down

to create them into PowerPoint and your talking points that you're writing down are what's gonna go in the bottom of your notes page. We're gonna get to that in just a minute. I'm actually getting to it now, but that's how you set it up.

Your storyboard in paper will have, for this one, it had rock your converse, and I would have had these points jotted down, okay? That storyboard becomes a slide, and by the same thing, if you've decided that point in your slide is your title, you write it in the top, the title,

and you write your talking points down below. Those were my talking points for this one. Now, interestingly enough, we are now back at the point where most people had started their presentation. The amount of time it takes you to go to this point, most people would probably be on,

three, four, five slides into their presentation and you are already so far ahead of them, you don't even know it yet, but you're way ahead because they're gonna make a whole bunch of slides that are not focused, don't have a reason, or don't fit together perfectly.

This is called the show-and-tell method by Finklestein, which is a really good name, right? Because we all remember show-and-tell. What you do is you put in a declarative title. You don't put in a question mark. What is TACE?

I'm gonna show you a TACE example before I get out. You put in the actual point, so if you're, for an example, one of the financial ones they gave you is you don't put in report for fourth quarter, you put in fourth quarter sales up by 20%. If people couldn't see the rest of the slide

and all they see is the title, they should have an idea of what that slide is about. You put your talking points in the bottom, and unless you have a specific image in mind, you just leave it blank for now. That part where it says click to add text,

you right-click on that frame and you hit cut, because you don't wanna be typing in that box unless you can help it. Almost everybody uses the default to bullet point lists, so they start right there and they write something and then they go enter, and it gets you a new bullet point,

and you write something, and you keep going until the slide's full and then you start a new slide. Please, please, please, please, please don't ever do that, ever. If anyone says, "Why don't you do that?" you say because Cathy Brown told me never to do that.

It is one of the most boring things that ever happens in a slideshow is when people have everything they're gonna say written up there point-by-point, and you're busy reading, and you can read faster than they can talk, so you get to the end of the slide, and you're zoning out,

and they're stumbling over the words 'cause they're nervous, and you're really wondering about the, if I can just read every slide, why is the person talking even here? Because they're not adding anything. I coulda just read that at home

in my pajamas, with my feet up, eating chips. Now, you just go through every single one of your storyboards and you create slides. One thing I like to do occasionally is I put my storyboards out and I arrange them all, and then sometimes I just accidentally

spill them off my desk so I can pick them up and see if I put them back in exactly the same order because occasionally I do switch them around a bit, but it's much easier than moving slides around and it doesn't inhibit your creativity in how you wanna line them up.

Let's talk about words versus pictures. Remember, I just said, "Cut that box out"? This is a common slide you would see if you were teaching someone about MRI safety. People would put this up and then they would start with, for example, for a 1.5 Tesla field magnet strength

is equal to the (mumbles), and they would go through all that down there. If I'd write that slide out there right now, what would you guys remember, anything? Is there anything in there? Is any of them more important to you than others?

Is there any way to tell what's really important in that slide? This is the least effective way ever. If you were in orienting floor nurses and said, "This is important about the MRI", and they'd be like, "What?"

What if I put in that picture, and I said, "I wanna talk to you about why "I don't want you to send ever any patient down "for an MRI with metal on their body." And I said, "That's a full-size ICU bed "that was sucked into the bore of that magnet.

"Can you imagine what woulda happened "if someone was standing between that bed and that magnet "when that bed got sucked into the bore?" Then, no matter what I say, as you all stand there and look at that picture, and you guys all know that, but floor nurses don't know that, they're gonna be goin',

and I say, "Don't ever send a patient down "with metal on their body." Do you think they're gonna remember that or are they gonna remember that? And which one's more important for them to remember? Right?

That one made a lot more impact, didn't it? Sorry? - [Audience Member] No pun intended. - [Presenter] (laughs) Good one. This is called picture superiority effect. What it is is that after 72 hours,

retention of information presented as a picture is about 65% more, or 65%, versus 10% of what is presented orally. If I said that and I said it all, 10% of people would remember some of those, but if I present that, 72 hours later,

65% of people will remember that. That is, no extra work, in fact, less work. You didn't have to type all that stuff out. You could just say it, and yet, people are gonna carry that message way better. Now, people can't read what's up there

and they can't listen to you at the same time. You have to decide if you want them to read or if you want them to listen. If you want them to read, if you have to put something up there, and we need to read, put it up there, stand aside, have drink, let them read.

Because sometimes you do have something, like definitions or something like that, you might need something that people do actually need to read. But if you want them to pay attention to you, you don't wanna have many words up there.

If you have to put words up there, you want it to be readable. Now, a few of us, me, are over 50. All the rest of you are not. That's okay. As some of us got a little older,

our arms got a little shorter, and a little shorter, and those wires got just a little skinnier every year, we don't see very well, especially small type. This room's fine, it's not very far to the back, but if I was in the big room and you were in the back and I had put stuff in 16-point text up there,

you wouldn't be able to read it. You probably can read 36 text, but in that long room, even then you probably would have a hard time reading 36-point text. You want your slide, depending on how big your room is, if you know, to be at least 30-point text or bigger,

if you're writing on that slide. You cannot fit a lot of words on a slide if it's 30-point text or bigger. That's good. It makes you stay with less words on your slide. Now, Dr. Gonzales did it, someone else did it,

I've seen at least two people do it. A lot of people put up a slide like that and what do they say? - [Audience Member] I know you can't see this. - [Presenter] Exactly, I know you can't see it. - [Audience Member] It's a really busy slide.

- [Presenter] It's a really busy slide. I wanna tell you what the point of this is, okay, right? A, if you ever have to say that, fix the slide, okay? B, if it's a really busy slide, don't use it. There is one single point in that slide, eh? The person put is TACE effective.

They did a good job, they put yes, so at least they gave you the point to the slide, but you know what the entire point of this slide was? It was this tiny little bit down here. So, who cared about any of that? The point of this slide was that TACE is effective

for a bit of survival down there, 20-month survival. Now, blah blah, who cares? This can go in your handout for people who are the one percent of nerds that would like to actually look at all those things and what all those numbers all mean, which are not me,

but other people like that, probably Sylvia and Greg like that kind of stuff, but not me. Now, if my whole point of this slide is TACE is effective, why don't I present it to you in a better way? Data slides like this are not about the data. They're about the meaning of the data

and that's what you're there to tell people. The meaning of the slide is TACE survival buys you about four extra months than no treatment. If you have HCC, what can you do with that four months? Well, maybe you got a grandchild coming and you wanna be alive for that grandchild to get born,

or maybe you have a wedding, or maybe you, it doesn't matter what your thing is. If the point of my slide is if you have TACE, it's gonna buy you probably about four months survival, I should have a picture that reflects that. When you leave here, and tomorrow if I saw you,

and I said, "What's the story about TACE and survival?" You guys are gonna remember the little baby and you're gonna think, well, four months, right? It'll buy you four months, right? - [Audience Member] (mumbles) you get busy. - [Presenter] Right?

If I had given you, woops, the other one, no, right? You probably wouldn't remember that because the whole point of that slide was that tiny little bit and you had to do the math to figure out the four months part.

Remember, audiences are here for you to tell them what the data means, or data, depending where you're from, some people like that way better, and if they are really interested in all that, it should be in your references or your handout. When I create a slide, I always try

and make the visuals appealing. I make my storyboard so I know what my visuals need to be, I create my PowerPoint, after I have a script, and I put my visuals in to reinforce the idea of the slide.

Now, we've made our script, that was act one, I've delivered the experience of the presentation.

Questions so far? Let's move on. Delivering the experience. When people need to speak, how many people have to pull out that brown paper bag and start into that brown paper bag, right?

We're all gettin' a little panicky about, oh my gosh, I'm gonna have to speak. I'm gonna talk to you about three things in this part. How to use a road map to increase audience retention, how to engage with your audience, and then, finally, some strategies

to help with your public speaking anxiety for those who have it, which is everyone, pretty much, including me. Let's talk first about the road map. Our brains are really lazy. They kinda like to know where we're going,

and you've all heard that tell them what you're telling them, tell them, tell them what you told them thing? That's the idea of the road map. If you stick fairly consistently with that three main points, or the three main points,

and three main points, people's brains learn that, oh, wait, at the beginning, she said there was gonna be three bits. There was gonna be write a script, create the look, deliver the experience. Well, she's just wrote the script and created the look.

That means deliver the experience must be next. When you get to this part and you say, "So, this is my third part. "I'm gonna talk to you about three bits in this part." And I can't remember what they are because I have the wrong slide up,

wrong thing up, oh, I did tell you. They're how to make the road map, how to engage, and how to help with public speaking anxiety. You know what the three parts are that are coming up. You need to follow your road map. Your road map is the part you've been writing on, right?

Here was where I was gonna go. When you give the talk, when you first start, you tell them these three, then when it comes time to talk, and you're gonna talk about part A, you give them the next three. Then, you're gonna go back and say, yeah,

we're gonna talk about this part and here's the next three. Then, we're gonna talk about this part, and here's the next three. That's how you go. You don't start at the beginning

and tell them all nine, okay? You give them the road map of where we're gonna go. This way, the audience always knows where they're going. The first thing we're gonna talk, or the next thing we'll talk about after road map is how to engage with your audience.

Yes, that's me. No, that's not my lead because that's dull and boring and my lead is actually pink and I don't know, it's got some kind of wild geometric design on it because you've met me. You know why.

But I needed this picture for some magazine and the guy didn't like it. He wanted me to look somber and whatever, so I made it up so that I was somber. Think about an engaging speaker you've listened to and think about why was their talk really good?

And if you can't think of an engaging speaker, think of one that wasn't engaging, one that you sat in the talk and you went, and think about why they weren't engaging. Musculoskeletal interventions. Anybody go to that one on the first day?

The first guy got up and he started talking, and I betcha he was probably a fairly passionate about what he did, but his passion didn't really come across in the way he started talking, and he was very, okay, and then we're gonna do this,

and then we're gonna do that, and (mumbles). And it was very monotone. It was very flat. It didn't feel like he was engaged with the audience. Now, if you went to Dr. Gonzales talking about medical errors one,

would you say he's an engaging speaker? Yes. Does he have some parts that make him harder to be an engaging speaker? Yes, he's a little hard to understand 'til you get used to his accent, right?

Is he worth it, getting past the accent that's a little hard to understand? Sure is, because he's very engaging, and he's a guy that every year you go, oh, where is he? I don't even look at the title. I find his name, okay, well, I know what I'm doing

at that time because I'm gonna go listen to him talk. That is an engaging speaker who has shared their passion with you, they've roped you into whatever they're topic is, if they had a good what's in it for you, and it is something that spoke to you.

The real reason, way to connect on a deeper level is to have a passion that you're sharing and to forget, to get outta here, and be in there. What's your need, how do I meet it, and I'm gonna focus on how I meet your need,

not what I need, and that right away engages you with your audience because it's like your patients. When you're working with your patient and they're all a bungling mass of energy or anxiety or whatever, but it's really 10 to three

and you're getting off in 10 minutes? You're not interacting with them thinking, "I'm getting off in 10 minutes. "Oh, it's okay dear", right? You're actually engaging with them, putting yourself out into what matters with them,

and not the fact that in 10 minutes, you get to get off and it's Friday. That's when you're engaged and your audience or your patients know it. Changing yourself from me and what I'm feeling to you and what you need will decrease your nervousness quite a bit

because it's not about you anymore, it's about them. Now, emotion and passion are the best way to connect with your audience. People like to be entertained and educated. It's better to get both at once. If I, or you as a speaker, are having fun, it shows

in your audience, they like to listen to you. You are interesting, you are engaging, it makes the time much better. You're hoping to inspire people to do whatever your call to action is, so you do need to pick a topic you are passionate about.

Now, I treat a lot of patients with HCC. I am not passionate about HCC. I do lecture about HCC sometimes, but you know what I am passionate about is improving quality of life for my patients with HCC, so I'm not gonna talk to you about,

well, I would hope I wouldn't have to, side effects of RFA are this, and the side effects in TACE are this, but I would give you that same information by talking to you about how it affects patients' lives and what they can do about it

would be a much more, I would be able to present that better because I'm more engaged in that topic. It's important to me how my patients are. Let's talk about the power of stories. Who went to Sarah's talk this morning? Anybody?

The very first one, violence in healthcare, did you enjoy the stories? Did they make 'em interesting? They're all true. I know it's hard to believe. Let me tell you a story.

I hope this works. I'm going to give you the bad movie plotline of a movie and I want you guys to guess what movie it is. Are you ready? An old widow disregards lifelong memories of her husband, children, and grandchildren,

in favor of that time she had a one night stand with an unemployed guy. Anybody? - [Audience Member] (mumbling) Bridges? - [Presenter] Nope. - [Audience Member] (mumbling) and Dustin Hoffman.

- [Presenter] Nope. Nobody? I betcha pretty much, when I put up the next image, most of you will have seen this movie. - [Audience Member] Oh, geez. - [Presenter] It's important when you tell stories,

that a story is a good way to engage your audience, to give them meaning to what you wanna tell them, right? You're not gonna forget some of the stories you heard in a presentation because they matter to you, right? I didn't wanna go see this movie. I knew exactly what happened.

The boat crashed, people died. Why would I wanna see a movie about that? Was that what the movie was actually about? No. Remember that stories are good and they're really important if you can

make them vivid with real details, okay? The more you can talk about a story as an illustrator, the better it is for people to remember. When you get up here to communicate, so you've told the story, you've shared yourself personally, communication is really important.

Communication is the purpose of these talks. It's not infection. Most of you don't know who she is, but you know who the guy next to her is. This is Cannes. Cannes is very windy.

Everybody knows it's windy. Why would you wear a dress like that? That could happen to you. I don't think she wore the dress like that on purpose, but to be honest, she was a previous Victoria's Secret model, and it probably didn't matter to her

that people could see up her dress, okay? Was there the big scandal all over social media? There was a little bit of one. If you didn't know her, though, you probably didn't know it. Did she care? No. You know why she didn't care, why anybody didn't care?

It's something that happens. Move on. Probably got her a lot of publicity for their movie. It was Mad Money or Money Man or something like that. I don't know, she was one of the characters in that movie with George Clooney.

If something goes wrong, most of the time, everybody out there doesn't know it goes wrong. Last year, when I gave this talk, I didn't have any AV. I started the talk with no AV. The audience would have said, "You're fine." And I did say, "I don't have any AV, let's get started."

But people don't know if your thing goes wrong up here. They don't know your notes are in the wrong order. They don't know you can't remember what you were really gonna say on this. Just carry on. I bet every single one of you out here,

probably, let's go 99% just in case, are so excited that you're in there and I'm up here, and you're not up here doing this that you're willing to forgive a lot of problems I might have, a lot of mistakes I might have,

you're gonna cut me a whole bunch of slack and just be all, no, it was good, right? Remember that. You guys don't expect me to be the expert. You don't expect me to have every answer. You're hoping you're gonna learn something from me,

but you're not in here as the expert on giving podium presentations to tell me I suck at doing this talk. You are here to learn, hopefully, something. Your audience doesn't actually expect you to be perfect. The only one up here that expects you to be perfect is you,

so get over that because the purpose of communicating is not perfection, it's communication. Practice is the single best way to decrease your anxiety when speaking. Practice, practice, practice, practice, practice. You make a presentation, you practice it.

You practice it in the mirror to yourself. When you're ready, you practice and give it to your colleagues. By the time you come to something like this or give it as a professional, you should have given it at least three times,

even better if you can videotape yourself and watch yourself. The most important part to decrease your anxiety is to know your first three to five minutes straight off, cold. You could stand in the bathroom

and give the whole first three to five minutes without a slide, without a note, without anything because once you get past that three to five minutes, you're in the zone, and you'll remember your stuff. It's that first three to five that makes you go, uhh, so you gotta know that part the best.

The third thing to try is a really cool thing. If you have never done it, go to TedTalks and google Cuddy, her name is Cuddy. Geez, I should have really had it written down, probably not, I probably erased it. It's Cuddy, C-U-D-D-Y, and it's talking about

the power of belief or something like that, I can't remember. Basically, it's fake it 'til you become it, not fake it 'til you make it. The more you trick your mind into believing it's true, telling your mind it's true, the more it does become true.

This is called a power pose, or the Wonder Woman, I used to have a picture of Wonder Woman, but I changed pictures, I don't know. Basically, in the bathroom, somewhere, wherever, before, you stand with your feet a good distance apart, flat, and hands on your hips,

if you're really brave you can do this one, for one to two minutes, and it increases your testosterone, decreases your cholesterol, cholesterol, cortisol. Decreasing your cortisol blunts your flight or fight response and increasing your testosterone

helps you look and feel more confident. Standing there, studies, this has been physiologically proven that if you stand like that for two minutes, those things will happen, and if they do, you feel much better about comin' up here. You'll be all, I got this,

so use this before you go onstage. Sarah talked this morning. We were in the little war room there and I was like, okay, get power posing, it's almost time, and she already knows that she's supposed to power pose like that, so it's good.

Summary.

A presentation is a carefully crafted three-act play. That's how I like to think of it. You're gonna write your script in analog, not on the computer. You're gonna write it on actual paper with a pen, maybe pencil.

I like highlighter sometimes, makes me happy. You're going to remember to use your focus in the what's in it for me by writing your conclusion first and your introduction together, and you're gonna use that power of three to reinforce ideas in people's brains.

Then, you're going to create your look using your storyboards to limit yourself to one idea per slide. You're going to create the PowerPoint based on your slides, your storyboards, and you're gonna stay visual wherever possible

by presenting your ideas on the screen as a picture and using yourself as the person that explains those pictures. And then, you're gonna deliver the experience. You're gonna use a road map to help your audience make sense of the information.

You're gonna engage by connecting with the audience, and you're gonna use some of the speaking strategies to overcome your stage fright.

Now, this is a secret one, and I know that you're tired, and in one minute, after you ask any questions you have. I like questions, never be scared of questions.

Questions help you learn something new when you give this talk the next time. Who has a question? Yes. - [Audience Member] I have a question about storytelling. I've been in situations where, as a part of a presentation, there was a storytelling

(background noise drowns out speaker) It was almost a little bit too much of a story. How do you draw a line there? - [Presenter] You only ever tell a story when it's relevant to whatever you're talking about and you keep it focused.

Your story should be relatively short. Most of the time, you don't have a lot of time to talk. If it's all of this, and then this, and then this, but only this part is related to whatever you're talking about, only tell this part. You know the stories that are,

well, back in 1983 when I was at, no, wait, was that 85 or was that 87, when I was in high school, nobody cares what year it was unless the year itself is specific to your story, in which case you should know what year it was 'cause it's specific to the story, right?

Really when you tell a story, it's better, you should rehearse your stories as well. They should be relevant to your topic, so you should rehearse them. Make sure you've cut out extraneous details. They don't need to know it was raining,

they don't need to know your feet hurt, unless those were points that illustrate your idea. That is the way. As a speaker, you need to focus your stories. Make 'em tight and compact, and that's practice. The best way, when you'll know that is when you start

to give the talk, the first time when you practice, and you tell the story, you'll realize, wait, that detail wasn't important, that detail wasn't important. This is actually the nugget of the story I need to keep, right? In the Titanic story, there's lots of stuff in that movie

that really was interesting and it was nice to watch, but maybe wasn't necessarily related. Now, it was a three-hour movie, right? It's James Cameron. Of course there's lots of stuff in there, but he gets paid and they'll make a lot of money for that.

We got time. Yes. - [Audience Member] I think you could say something also like, "This is something that happened to me, "you do not want it to happen to you, "and this is how to avoid it."

- [Presenter] Yup. Exactly, right? These are the points. This is why I would share this story. Particularly if the story is a negative thing, make sure that you don't just tell the negative story. Make sure you tie it to whatever you're talking about

and this is how you make sure that doesn't happen to you. Other questions? Yes. - [Audience Member] How do you find (background noise drowns out speaker). - [Presenter] Because you're looking for the audience to be, yup.

- [Audience Member] Want some interaction (background noise drowns out speaker). - [Presenter] That's exactly it. When you start the story, say, "I'd like to know "if this has happened in your institution "and I would like your feedback

"on how you think you would handle it." Because it gives your audience that, however long your story is, time to be thinking, oh, you're looking for me to figure out or give you information on how this, it sets them up to think about it, right?

- [Audience Member] Is that way worse off? - [Presenter] What do you, if there's anymore questions, come find me. Now, most people end their presentation right here, right? Thank you all for coming. Have a nice day.

You walk outta here. What's the last thing I said? Do you remember what it was? Okay? Now, that was a fine question in the back, but you know how some people ask questions

that are kinda off topic and they're kinda whatever? I don't want you to leave with that, so the most important thing to remember is your conclusion and your summary are not the same thing. I gave you the summary. I reiterated where my road map was,

but your conclusion is actually your call to action that you started with as the very first thing on your presentation. It should always come after your questions so that people leave this room, remember, the first thing they heard

and the last thing they heard are the most important, with the actual point I wanted you to come. My call to action in this story is next year, I wanna see you guys presenting. You all have relevant, specific information that I wanna know and I want you to share it

because I think as nursing, as a profession, needs to hear from other nurses about what's important to us in taking care of our patients. We are the experts. Our patients benefit when we teach each other our specific knowledge, and I challenge you all

to go out and present some information this year. Now, what do you remember when go out? Cathy Brown said get out there and start thinking about how you're gonna educate our future generation. Thank you. There you go.

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